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Preparing for War

While transcribing Denis Grant King’s journals, it has struck me how little mention there is of tensions in Europe caused by Hitler and Germany. Of course, my view comes with the gift of hindsight with full knowledge of the tsunami that is about to crash across Europe in the form of the Second World War.

I am now transcribing pages covering spring and summer 1939, and with the exception of the one or two mentions of problems caused by soldiers out on manoeuvres, and occasional musings on war and politics, relatively little has been mentioned of the looming threat of the UK going to war – that is until 26th August. In the journal entry for this day there is mention of some of the steps people were suddenly making, obviously dreading (or expecting) a turn for the worse.

In the journal, it is unclear what discussions had happened at Avebury on this particular day, but the impending war had clearly become enough of a cause for concern for two things to happen. The first was that Alexander Keiller, who considered war to be “imminent”, asked his excavating staff to continue working on the Saturday afternoon to complete recording features and records before the government “called up all the men” for military service. The second thing was that two individuals, Commander Rupert Gould and Leslie Grinsell sent valuable manuscripts to Alexander Keiller so they could be kept safely at his Avebury museum. Commander Gould actually visited Avebury to hand his manuscripts over personally as he travelled to Bath to take up duties at The Admiralty.

For those wondering what significant event happened on 26th August 1939, it was what is referred to as the “Jabłonków Incident” when German agents tried to take over the Jabłonków Pass, a strategic railway tunnel, in order to help Germany’s invasion of Poland. However, the Germans were fought off by Polish soldiers and the planned invasion was postponed.

On September 1st, the German Luftwaffe started bombing Poland including the town of Katowice, where a young reporter for the Telegraph newspaper called Clare Hollingworth was staying. Clare was a remarkable persona and is known as being the first woman to be a war reporter. Witnessing the bombing raids first hand she tried to alert the authorities but Polish leaders and the Second Secretary at the British Embassy in Warsaw refused to believe her urgent phone calls; after all, negotiations were still ongoing. Later, she saw first-hand thousands of German troops and tanks lined up across the border, facing Poland. It was only when she reported it and the Telegraph ran the story that the British public at large realised what was happening.

1053 miles away from Katowice, the lives of the people Avebury would quickly change.

DGK mentions a news report – which is likely the one by Clare Hollingworth – and writes that war will be declared in the next couple of days. The government thinks, upon declaration of war, the Germans will carry out a huge bombing campaign. Children in the cities are soon transported to the country, and a bus load of 70 children from the East End with their teachers arrives in Avebury. DGK arranges for his parents to join him. By 2nd September, Black Out precautions are put into place.

Avebury, along with the rest of UK, is bracing itself for war.

**

The full extract for Saturday 26 August 1939, from Denis Grant King’s diary, Alexander Keiller Museum Accession Number 1732624-003.

“Saturday, August 26th 1939
Beautiful sunny weather that must remind the older folk of August 1914. It is difficult to believe in the reality of the international crisis, or indeed that the human race lacks the intelligence and good will to compose its differences without recourse to war. Still, the forces which lead nations to war gather momentum in fair weather and in foul; and every intelligent person who has lived and observed events during the past twenty

years would be unduly sanguine if he had not expected another holocaust sometime. The question is, when?

No doubt statesmen will try to put it off as long as possible, that is, as far as delay is consistent with imperial interests. Churchill suggested that the zero hour would occur in August.

Anyway, Alexander Keiller believes that war is imminent and has asked us all to continue work on Saturday afternoon to reveal the “Z arrangement” as much as possible, and complete the records, before the Government calls up all the men.

Another reminder of 1914 came in the person of Commander Gould, R.N., who fought at the Battle of Jutland. He was then on his to way to Bath to take up duties under the Admiralty and called in at the caravan, where Alexander Keiller introduced him to me. He is a six foot man, 18 stone, so he says, clean shaven and grey hair; also very friendly and talkative, giving an account of various talks he had broadcast from the B.B.C., mostly, I understood, of an informative character on a variety of topics.

His object in calling was to leave certain manuscripts of value to be deposited in the Museum, which he considered to be a place of comparative safety. L.V. Grinsell also sent us some of his MMS [manuscripts] for safe keeping.

After Commander Gould said good-bye, Alexander Keiller told me a little about him. It appears that after the War was over, his wife left him, and his distress affected him mentally, so much so that he lost his job and sank into very low water. He then spent ten years perfecting the Harrison chronometer and making it work (which apparently it never did before), for which service the government rewarded him with the paltry sum of £100. One should see his work in the Greenwich Naval Museum. A queer story. One would not have thought that such an immense robust fellow could have been so upset by a little bit of fluff; but that is life!”

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The Whimsical Flimsy

Cataloguing correspondence for the digitisation project may appear to be a dry old business, but in fact it’s often pretty interesting and every now and then it throws up a real gem of a letter.

Below is a copy of a letter which caught our attention this week (typed on ‘flimsy’ paper – thin sheets usually used for carbon copies). It was written by the highly influential OGS Crawford, in response to an article written by Alexander Keiller in The Modern Mystic issue of February 1939. Keiller’s piece in the esoteric magazine discussed the origins of sites including Stonehenge and Avebury.

Osbert Guy Stanhope Crawford was – judging by the relatively small amount of his correspondence held in the Avebury archives – a dynamic, progressive, larger-than-life, no-nonsense character. He was an archaeologist and aerial photographer of great renown, and served as Archaeological Officer of the Ordnance Survey in Southampton – the perfect occupation for such a pragmatist.

Crawford’s Wikipedia page gives a flavour of the enormous breadth of his experiences and achievements, but in this archival document we see his rarely glimpsed (and biting) humour in full flow. It is at the same time both an inventive whimsy and an acerbic criticism.

Love it.

A photograph of OGS Crawford, via Wikimedia. Unknown author, copyright Keble College, Oxford.

[Ed’s note from Fran: Crawford’s letter is another example from the archive that documents lively early 20th century debates about public (pseudo)archaeology. A key question for the research team is how far our digital archive can contain writings which satirise or dismiss alternative approaches to Avebury and other neolithic sites, while also opening up space for serious, sensitive, and critical approaches to Avebury’s varied interpretations and uses. We welcome your comments!].


Transcription:

Copy of OGS Crawford’s letter to The Modern Mystic.

Nursling, Southampton,

14th February, 1939.

Dear Sir,

In your February number (p.10) Mr. Keiller, in his admirable article, quotes a statement that, when megalithic monuments like Stonehenge were built, the level of the Baltic and of the North Sea was 400 feet higher than now! (I need hardly say that Mr. Keiller himself is far too sane to attach any importance to such a statement). But it seems at first glance to raise certain difficulties about the construction of Stonehenge. the level of the ground on which Stonehenge stands is about 340 feet above the present level of the sea. A simple calculation shows that it must have then been about 60 feet below the sea!

The explanation of this remarkable fact was mystically revealed to me by no less a person than the chief architect himself, the patriarch Noah. With characteristic frankness he told me of a difficulty that has escaped the notice of all the Biblical critics, and of the ingenious method by which he solved it. The heavy precipitation which resulted in the well-known Flood, consisted, of course, entirely of fresh water; and the fishes who for generations had been born and bred, so to speak, in salt water came to him in great distress, asking his advice. Not being a water expert himself, Noah consulted the Authorities and was told that only strenuous work could save the fish from becoming fossilized. He accordingly devised a scheme by which they should swim across the drowned continent of Eurasia and construct a temple to Jehovah upon the submerged uplands that are now called Salisbury Plain. In order to increase their labour and save them from extinction they were to use only the largest stones, and were to fetch some of them from distant Wales. They were supplied with blue prints by a well-known firm of Sumerian architects, specially drawn on waterproof paper by highly skilled crabs, with ink provided free of charge by cuttle-fish or squids. (It is interesting to note that precisely similar paper is still used by the Ordnance Survey for its small-scale maps). The task was duly carried out, and shortly after 4000 B. C. the temple was formally declared open by a bottle-nosed whale.

In every community, however, there are some recalcitrant individuals who refuse to take good advice, and so there were amongst the fishes. A little group of passive resisters was formed, and they occupied their time swimming round the ark cursing the Authorities. They said they would be fossilized before they would consent to do such menial work, and fossilized they were. When at length the Flood receded, the slopes of Ararat and all the land of Armenia was strewn with huge stone fish. They remain there to this day and may be seen by any who care to visit that country. There is a photograph of one in the Museum at Erivan. They are called VISHAPS and a fully illustrated account of them was recently published (Les Vishaps, by N. Y. Marr & J. I. Smirnov, Leningrad, 1931, reviewed in ANTIQUITY XI, 1937, 122-3).

This explanation is a Revelation in the strict sense of the word. It entirely supersedes the old theory that Stonehenge was built by the Apalachian Indians of North America and dedicated to Apollo*; and of course puts out of court the fantastic conclusions of archaeologists which are invariably built upon the insecure basis of ascertained fact. I might add that Noah informed me that he was always at the disposal of genuine seekers after knowledge, and that his best inspiration came from Chambery No. 5 served with pigs’ trotters, preferably at the Escargot d’Or.

Yours faithfully,

(signed) OGSC

The Editor Modern Mystic 6 Bear Street, Leicester Square, W.C.2

*

W. S. Blacket, Researches into the Lost Histories. of America, 1883, p. 193.

*

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An Avebury Story

By Dushyant Naresh (MSc Digital Archaeology, University of York)

I’ve never really believed in magic, or the supernatural, or a higher power. But I have to admit that there is something undoubtedly magical about Avebury and the prehistoric landscape it is nestled in.

Maybe it’s the size of the stones, or how large the circles are, or the fact that you can walk right up to them and touch them knowing that thousands of years ago, another human being was probably doing the exact same thing, thinking the same thoughts, and feeling this same sense of wonderment. It’s this blurred line between archaeology and emotion that gets the hairs on the back of my neck tingling.

Coincidentally, one core exercise of The Avebury Papers project is to translate some of these emotions into another medium – a “creative intervention” – be it poetry, prose, or something else. I guess you’d call that “art”.

I am the worst artist of all time.

However, I know how to make videos, and I like experimentation. So, for my Master’s dissertation, I went to Avebury with a dodgy microphone and a 360° camera to try and capture a mixture of both archaeology and emotion. I then created a “choose your own adventure” style immersive story using the videos I shot, allowing viewers to pick what kind of anecdote or theme they were interested in experiencing. This was all programmed and downloaded onto a VR headset for a full immersive experience, and tested with dozens of participants.

Some people liked the project, and many others didn’t. That’s the nature of any creative endeavour, and is what makes the whole process exciting. I hope to go back to Avebury soon to reignite that sense of curiosity and create something new, and hopefully, divisive.

If you haven’t visited Avebury, I highly recommend it. In the meantime, if you’d like to experience it virtually, you can watch/play An Avebury Story on YouTube.

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Cool Finds of the Month

During photography in the Stables library attic, we’re continuing to find a lot of interesting drawings, posters, and maps, some are archaeological, and others are a bit different. Here are a select few.

This cartoon was made by Denis Grant King During the 1939 excavation of the South East sector at Avebury. The cartoon has captions describing people and their day-to-day activities on the excavation site. It’s worth zooming in for details.

Denis Grant King Cartoon  of the 1939 Avebury excavation, accession number 20004595
Denis Grant King Cartoon of the 1939 Avebury excavation, accession number 20004595.

Stuart Piggott was well-known for doing quick sketches and cartoons when he had a free five minutes. We have many within our collection here at Avebury. This one below is my personal favourite – a strange creature sneaks into a room, with the caption “a regrettable error has unfortunately crept it”.

Cartoon by Stuart Piggott, Accession number 20004596. showing a  creature crawling through a partially open door. Captioned "a regrettable error has unfortunately crept in
Cartoon by Stuart Piggott, Accession number 20004596.

After the 1934 and 1935 West Kennet Avenue excavations archaeologist Denis Grant King drew up some of the flints found during the excavations. The flint drawings below show all the worked areas of the flints as well as cross sections of the flint. These drawings are a just few of the ones we have, they are all grouped together under Accession Number: 20004991.

The graph below, accessioned at 20000573-014-001 was also created by Denis Grant King. The graph shows the distance between the standing stones in the North West and South West sectors of Avebury.

bar graph showing the distance between standing tines in the north west and south west sectors of Avebury
Graph of stone distances created by Denis Grant King, 20000573-014-001.

Whilst we know little about the map below, we do know it was produced in 1935. The map itself shows the path of 32 different historical sea voyages dating between 600 BCE and 1906. It shows everything from Columbus’ voyages to Hudson’s discovery of the Hudson River! It’s not clear why exactly it’s in the Keiller archive, but someone must’ve thought it was of interest at some point in time – perhaps it helps us think about Avebury in context of world history?

Map of the world with sailing journeys taken by famous adventurers and explorers shown
“The Great Discoveries” Map, accession number 20004686-001.
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Surveying Avebury’s Stones (with poles!)

Visitors to Avebury recently may have witnessed the odd sight of two people walking around with cameras on the end of long poles. Certainly, many people came up to ask what we were doing, and no, it wasn’t part of a mysterious mid-summer ritual!

The truth is sadly more mundane. Adam Stanford of SUMO GeoSurveys (https://www.sumoservices.com/archaeology-geophysical) and I have been conducting a survey of the Avebury and West Kennet Avenue stones using a technique known as photogrammetry, a technique for generating 3d models of objects.

I should add that our survey happened to coincide with a period of beautiful sunny weather. The brilliant sunshine and strong shadow was far from ideal conditions for stone photography, but it was hard to worry about that as the buttercups were out and the West Kennet Avenue was looking rather magical!

Adam Stanford using a camera on a pole to photograph the top of a stone on the West Kennet Avenue.

In order to make the photogrammetric model, we take overlapping photos of the stones from every possible angle (hence the long poles). This involved taking roughly 150 shots for each stone. Once the photographs have been taken, we use software to generate a 3d point cloud by triangulating the positions of individual points on a stone using multiple photographs taken from different angles.

The end result is an accurate 3d model of each stone.

Screen capture of the construction of the 3d model. The blue rectangles show the location and direction of each photograph the model is being compiled from.

Those of you that follow the Avebury Papers project will know that the focus of our project is on digitising the archive from Avebury’s 20th century excavations. Therefore, you are probably wondering why we want to survey the stones. The answer is a little convoluted.

The starting point is that there are lots of photographs of Avebury’s stones in the Keiller archive (we estimate there to be 2000 of them!). Many of these are only partial images of stones taken from odd angles as they were being uncovered, or re-erected, in the 1930s. It is quite difficult to identify which stones appear in the photographs but this is information that we would very much like to add to our catalogue so that ultimately people will be able to search for all the images and written records associated with each individual stone on the site.

Whilst trying to work out how we were going to identify these stones, the opportunity came up to work with some clever people at the University of York involved with machine learning. They have set up a project that aims to teach a computer to identify the stones in the photographs for us. I won’t go into more detail here as this part of the project will be covered in detail in a future blog post. Suffice to say, the first step is to give the computer some images of Avebury’s stones to use as a reference point. These photos need to provide the computer data on what every stone looks like from every possible angle, and so the obvious starting point was to create a 3d model of the stones using photogrammetry. A few examples of what the models look like can be seen below.

3d model of Avebury Stone 9.

AS-09 by SUMO GeoSurveys on Sketchfab

3d model of West Kennet Avenue Stone 35A.

WKAS-35A by SUMO GeoSurveys on Sketchfab

Beyond teaching a computer to recognise a stone, there are many more reasons why the photogrammetric survey is a great idea.

First of all it will provide accurate 3d survey data that will be essential baseline data for the future management of the monument.

Secondly, the survey opens up lots of avenues for further research. For example, it will allow us to conduct a detailed quantified analysis of the surfaces of the stones. Many of the stones at Avebury have evidence of differing amounts of flaking and pecking of their surfaces. This is of interest as, unlike Stonehenge, Avebury’s stones are often thought of as being natural sarsen boulders that have not been dressed. We will use the photogrammetric model to try and work out how much of the surface alteration of the stones relates to the working of them in prehistory, as opposed to natural weathering, or medieval and later attempts to break or bury the stones.

Ultimately, we aim to survey the whole of the monument, including its banks and ditches. Once this has been done the model will also be able to quantify the volume of its earthworks to a higher level of accuracy than has previously been possible.

Alongside an improved understanding of the pecking and flaking of Avebury’s stones, this information will be an essential component in understanding the scale and complexity of the Neolithic construction of the monument.

For now, though, there is more survey work to be done. We estimate that we may need to take 15,000 photographs before we have captured every stone from every possible angle. So you may well see more people wandering around with cameras on poles in the months to come!

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Cool Finds of the Month

*Content warning: drawings of a human skull at the end of the post*

Whilst organising the stables archive there have been some interesting discoveries, here are some of them:

These mounted pictures of dinosaurs were used as a museum display piece! From left to right we have a styracosaurus, an iguanodon, and a ceratosaurus.

Plan drawing of a road accident from 1940
Plan drawing of a road accident from 1940, AKM accession number: 20004634.

During World War 2 Alexander Keiller worked for the local police force. This meant he had to write reports for any incidents that occurred in the area. Here we have one of his plans for a report.

At Stables, we also have Alexander Keiller’s floor plans for his London residence at Charles Street. It is interesting to see how the house was laid out during his time there.

HUMAN REMAINS DRAWINGS AHEAD

Below you can see a select few of Doris Chapman’s pencil drawings of some of the skulls from Alexander Keiller’s 1936 excavation at Lanhill. While not strictly an ‘Avebury paper’, they fall within the wider project’s remit to celebrate all the people who excavated Avebury, and allow more people to access Doris Chapman’s work and realise her contributions to archaeology.

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Getting the Stables Archive Ready for Photography

Here in the archive, we are gearing up for round two of photography. We are moving the photography equipment to the stables archive where we have a lot of our larger maps and plans stored. But before we make the move we have to make sure everything is in order.

the two main plan chests in the stables archive
The two main plan chests in the stables archive

To make sure photography at stables goes as smoothly as possible we have been doing some important prep work. This includes rehousing documents so they all have their own individual wallet and accession number.

rehoused documents in a plan chest drawer
Rehoused documents in a plan chest drawer

This is a super important job as we need to know exactly what we have before photography starts so we can make sure nothing gets missed during the process and so that accession numbers don’t get muddled up!

We’ve also started a more detailed catalogue, as some items were catalogued as a bundle.

A person holding up a large map of Avebury
Volunteer JM holding up a map of Avebury. Accession number: 20004915

Here we have volunteer JM holding up one of the many large maps of Avebury that we have in the collection. The organisation of the stables archive has led to some other interesting finds, stay tuned for a future blog post on these!

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Psychometry and the Giants of Archaeology

“I was glad to note that you made some protest against the vapours that have befouled the ether […] it is monstrous that the only prehistory broadcast should be this nonsense.”
– V Gordon Childe to Alexander Keiller, 10 October 1937

On Friday 17 September, 1937, BBC Radio aired one of a three-part series titled, “The Unchronicled Past” by antiquarian John Foster Forbes. Foster Forbes was dedicated to the idea that megaliths were built by the survivors from Atlantis. He was noted for his opinions on UFOs, giants, and psychometry, which was the practice of feeling and studying vibrations from ancient monuments. The inclusion of his ideas on BBC Radio sparked vociferous protest from contemporary archaeologists: including Alexander Keiller and V Gordon Childe, who was then Abercromby Professor of Archaeology at University of Edinburgh. For an excellent further discussion of BBC Radio and archaeology, see Jan Lewis’ 2021 PhD.

Fran and her team of digitising volunteers at Avebury came across materials in the archive that demonstrate push-back from archaeologists regarding unorthodox ideas about the past, and show how scholarly debate filtered into the mainstream.

A March 1937 clipping in the Daily Telegraph calls Childe a “Controversial Archaeologist” for denouncing the “simple supernaturalism” of physicists Sir Arthur Eddington and Sir James Jeans, and for calling Hitler’s Aryan theory “arrant nonsense”. 

“Controversial archaeologist” clipping from the Daily Telegraph, accessioned at the Alexander Keiller Museum as 88051526_078_001.

A 10th October letter from Childe to Keiller, containing the assessment of the “befouling vapours” of Foster Forbes’ theories, was sent on stationery from the Fleece Hotel in Richmond, Yorkshire, which is still a going concern. He rails against Foster Forbes’ appearance on BBC Radio, “It is monstrous that the only prehistory broadcast should be this nonsense.” He rallies archaeology’s institutions to protest and to “offer to advise the BBC as to the reliability of proposed talks” and complains about the admission of “any civil servant” to learned archaeology societies.

Howard Cunnington, curator for the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society (WANHS), writes to Keiller on the same topic a couple days later. He attaches a resolution he was to put forth at the WANHS committee meeting, which expresses concern that the BBC had broadcast Foster Forbes’ “highly regrettable discourse on the ‘Stone Age’, which, as he admitted, set forth only his own ideas, which are entirely opposed to the evidence of all recent excavations, and to the opinion of the greater majority of accredited archaeologists”.

In Keiller’s reply to Childe (sent two weeks later, as he was suffering with flu), he echoes Childe’s complaint regarding the membership of Foster Forbes to the Royal Anthropological Institute and the Society of Antiquaries, and notes that he has suggested that both societies distance themselves from Foster Forbes’ views. He explains how The Prehistoric Society, WANHS, the Hampshire Field Club, and others have already made “articulate objections”.

Keiller also reveals how Kendrick (T D Kendrick, keeper of British and Medieval Antiquities at the British Museum) had written to him to suggest that “two reputable archaeologists should broadcast talks controverting Foster Forbes’ fantastic statements”. Modestly, Keiller suggests that he might “instantly name half-a-dozen men very much more competent to undertake the job than I. After all I am but an archaeological surveyor and an excavator when all is said and done”. Keiller duly appends a list of archaeological subjects and specialists including Grahame Clarke, “Hawkes” (probably Christopher, perhaps Jacquetta – both had contributed to BBC programming previously), R G Collingwood, O G S Crawford, and Stuart Piggott to propose to the BBC, asking Childe what he thinks to the idea.

There are several more letters back and forth between Keiller and Childe, and others, on Foster Forbes. These clippings and letters in the Avebury archive reveal Keiller and later curators’ interests in preserving discussions about archaeology as much as the physical archaeology. They show how networks of peers could be mobilised to defend – or gatekeep, depending on whose side you are on – archaeological narratives.

Over 80 years later, archaeologists are still mounting campaigns against what is commonly called “pseudoarchaeology”. Graham Hancock’s popular Ancient Apocalypse aired on Netflix in 2022, rehearsing some of the ideas Foster Forbes put forth regarding ancient people, aliens, and Atlantis.

John Hoopes, Flint Dibble, and Carl Feagans responded to this programme in the Society for American Archaeology journal, noting that by addressing pseudoarchaeology, archaeologists are “damned if we do and damned if we don’t” as some people argue that interacting with the theories – even to denounce them – adds legitimacy and visibility. Hoopes, Dibble, and Feagans record the various public-facing, social media, and popular media attempts to refute Hancock. Lobbying for a BBC series on the matter – as per Keiller’s suggestion – just would not reach the same audience as in 1939, as pseudoarchaeologies multiply across global, digital spaces.

Indeed, these theories seemingly hold enormous sway in public imaginaries. Alongside attempting to myth-bust, it is therefore vital to consider why these myths take root. During the recent Radio 4 ‘In our time’ discussion on megaliths, Melvin Bragg was audibly exasperated with the expert response to many questions of ‘we can’t know for sure’: archaeological myths play a powerful role creating and sustaining interest in ancient places, and go far beyond any individual or learned institution’s control. 

After speaking about the Avebury Papers on the radio, Colleen received a pamphlet regarding an alternate theory regarding Avebury involving ley lines. She emailed the author back and invited him to come to Avebury, perhaps to volunteer or just to have a chat. He was incredibly lovely, and declined, as he was very elderly and taking care of his partner. We hope he keeps in touch and we will share the online archive with him when it is available.

These enthusiasts are stakeholders in the Avebury Papers, and as a project team we are still trying to understand their interests and needs in our outreach and care of the digital archive. We hesitate to dismiss their attachment to Avebury as unimportant or irrelevant. Can we form an inclusive archive when these divisions have defined archaeology for decades? Or can we conceive of the Avebury Papers digital archive as an opportunity for reconciliation, de-escalation, and an invitation in?

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Avebury Papers on Outside the Box podcast

Just in time for Volunteers’ Week, 1-7 June in the UK, the Archives and Records Association (ARA) invited us to take part in their Outside the Box podcast!

Ros Cleal (Curator at AKM), Ros Preuss, Bev Stapleton, Prue Saunders (all volunteers with the digitisation project), and I chatted about how the project has been progressing, what it’s like volunteering at Avebury, and the kinds of stories we’ve started to explore.

You can listen to the interview on Spotify or via Libsyn.

Click here to listen on Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/episode/4YAPN9i8IIMKk38dNTyu44?si=o4oYm4YOShup4xG3_qznFw

Click here for Libsyn: https://sites.libsyn.com/448569/website/volunteer-special-the-avebury-papers

A huge thanks to host Deborah for inviting us onto the show!

Outside the Box is a podcast about archives and the wonders they contain. Outside the Box is part of the Archives and Records Association’s Explore Your Archive campaign.

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Avebury People

Can you help us to identify the people who made the modern Avebury?

The Alexander Keiller Museum archive holds hundreds of photographs of people. The photographs span several archaeological campaigns across the decades, including excavations run by Harold St George Gray in Avebury Henge in the 1900-10s, and the Alexander Keiller-led work at Avebury and West Kennet Avenue in the 1930s.

As we progress through the project, we hope to identify as many people as we can in these photographs. Our volunteers are busy transcribing captions (when they exist), and collecting names from letters and diaries.

Do you recognise any of these excavators? Perhaps older relatives have photographs that show familiar faces?

Workmen during the 1909 excavations led by Harold St George Gray. Alexander Keiller Museum accession number 78510162.
Workers in 1937 at Avebury. Alexander Keiller Museum accession number 20004218-002.
Workers in 1939, erecting stones in Avebury henge. Alexander Keiller Museum accession number 20004243-002.

The fabulous digitisation volunteer team flag whenever a person is mentioned in letters and diaries. I then compile the names into a list, including details about the person’s role, if known. Later down the line, we hope to be able to match up names with photographs, as we work out who excavated which stone, or who was on site on a given week.

Our working list of ‘Avebury People’ is updated almost daily, but this blog post was last updated 19 February 2024. Check back again as we add new names!

If you recognise any names – especially if you have any photographs – we’d love to hear from you . Leave your comments below to be in touch, or email Fran dot Allfrey at York dot ac dot uk.

Avebury ‘Hands’

During the 1930s excavations at Avebury, the hired workmen were known as ‘hands’ in the diaries and other archive documents. These men lived in the surrounding villages and towns, some travelling quite some way to work. Many of them were agricultural labourers, but some of them returned ‘archaeological worker’ on census records.

SurnameForename(s)Role Further details
AlexanderHandAssisting George Bates 7 Oct 1939
AshA EHand1939, left for RAF Yatesbury job 27 Nov 1939
AshHenryHandHand – 1934, 1935, 1937. Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan). Made Foreman 20 Jul 1938
BallRichard / ‘Turnpike’HandTurnpike’ Ball of Turnpike Cottage. Hand 1937
BallArthur GeorgeHandHand, 1934, 35.
BirdJHand10 Jan 1939, tree-felling under Phil Withal. WEVY diary 22.
BlakeGeorgeHandMentioned in full 7 Jul 1939, 23 Oct 1939 (with Tommy King).Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan)
BlakeHarold JHandHand 1935, 1937 Absent without leave 25 Sep 1937. Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan)
BlakeLionelHand20 Sep 1937 Blake H mentioned 25 Sep 1937. Lionel Blake employed 8 Feb 1937 (WEVY 15) Second carter (haymaking) at WH (WEVY 16 p12) 
BlakeWHand1938: one of 13 men engaged at start of season
BowsherGeorgeHandHand – 1934, 1935. Filling in ‘ganger’ WEVY 9, Jun 7 1934
BrindleWilliam Henry JosephHandHand – 1935. 1937 Entered as Brindel (H) in the diary. Poultry runs, WEVY 12, 24 Oct 1935. Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan)
BuckinghamGeorgeHandHand 1937, 1938 (mistakenly recorded as ‘Buckland’ by NC?
BuckinghamNormanHandLeft 20 Oct 1939 due to call up. Stone Erecting gang member
BullArthur WilliamHandHand – 1934. Hand 1937, 1938
BullBertHandHand – 1935 Experienced wire fencer of Wint Monkton (WEVY 12, 31 Oct) Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan). Excavation gang Avebury (WEVY 16 p19) Hand 1937 Absent without leave 25 Sep 1937 “Turnpike’ [allotments]
BullLewis AdolphusHandHand. 1937 (21 June WEVY16). Carter. Grass cutting . 1939 Register next door to Sam Pratt Wint Monkton. b 29Mar1913
BullWalterHand
ButcherHandHand 1937
CableAlbert / Bert. Initials AH.Hand23 Aug 1937 Cable and Cable (L) mentioned on tasks: Two of this surname. B is given in 1939 diary, and at Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan). 10 Jan1939: Bert Cable on tree felling (WEVY 22).
CableLeonardHandHand – 1934. Hand 1937, 1938, 1939. Employed 8 Feb 1937 (WEVY 15). Tree-felling 10 Jan 1939 (WEVY 22)
ChiversBert (Herbert)HandHand 1937. Excavation gang
DobsonWilliam THandHand 1935, 1937 Erecting gang 1935 W Dobson WEVY diary 22 10 Jan 1939, tree-felling under P Withil
FishlockFrankHandHand – 1934. Hand 1937, assistant to Mr Van Asch (WEVY 16 p20), Foreman 1938
GaleRHandHand – 1934.
GoddardJHandHand – 1934, 1935. Separate to S. Goddard. Erecting gang 1935
GoddardS: H in WEVY diary 9HandHand – 1934. Former Windmill Hill hand. WEVY diary 9 has H Goddard, Apr 10
GriffithsAHandChief assistant to Griffiths, stone erector, from Caernarvon. WEVY 12 Sep 6 1935 
GriffithsG – given as GD in diary, see bio sketchHandGriffiths – ‘drills’ – so D is not part of name. Office of Works foreman WEVY 10 Jun 14 1934 Previously at Stonehenge. Raising stones.
GriffithsWilliamHandGriffiths in charge of stone erecting, with two assistants. From Caernarvon (WEVY 12, 25 Oct 1935)
HambidgeErnest Henry (Hambridge?)HandHand – 1934. Former Windmill Hill hand. Photo in WEVY diary!
HancockGHandDiary 20 p114Jun1938: one of 13 men engaged at start of season
HarperJohnHandHand – 1934.WEVY 9 p157 : John Harper of West Kennet
HeadWHandHand mentioned 21 Nov 1938, 19 Jun and13 Jul 1939. ‘Footman’ living at AM 1939 — CHECK THIS – – where is this info from? 1939 Register, Avebury Manor. W Head,WEVY diary 22, 10 Jan 1939, Hand
Hillier/HillyerHandMentioned September 1938
HorsallHHandApr 9 1934 One of six original ‘Hands’ Same as B Horsell in Keiller diary? ‘Herbert’ otherwise ‘Bert’
HorsellBHandHand – 1934.
Jock Hand1937 – Hand and in charge of concreting gang.
JonesJCHandCarpenter 1939
KingTommy’HandPatrolling site 1 August 1937, working 23 Oct 1939 with George Blake
LanfearWFHandHand – 1934. WEVY 9 has WF Lanfear p157 of Avebury
LiggerHandFirst mentioned with Strange 11 Oct 1937. May not be a Hand.
LoveseySHandHand – 1934. Hand 1937 WEVY 9 has S Lovesey p157 of Wint Monkton. Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan)
LoxtonMHandExcavating with Bert Bull an W Knight 19 Oct 1937. Diary 20 p1 14Jun1938: one of 13 men engaged at start of season
LushJohnHandForeman for Gray – 1909. ‘From Dorchester’
Mathews / MatthewsW / BillHandSpelled 2 ways across diaries
NashBHandHe did two seasons at WH, then 1939 till 27Nov at Avebury. Of Winterbourne Monkton. 
NashAHand1939 diary. Is this person related to or same as A Nash, perhaps? Probably refers to the same person, AE (Bert) Nash.
NashStanleyHandHand 1937 Excavation gang
PearceOHandHand – 1934. Former Windmill Hill hand. Excavation foreman at least 1937-9. Older than W? [‘snr’ in diary is scratched out]. 
PearceWHandHand – 1934. Former Windmill Hill hand. Contracted to Bevan Nov 1935 (WEVY 12)
PrattSamuel HaroldHandHand – 1934,1938 Former Windmill Hill hand. Allotment holder 1935
RadbourneErnestHandHand – 1934. Older brother of Francis
RadbourneFrancisHandHand – 1934. Younger brother of Ernest
RandallFrankHandFirst mention18 Oct 1938
Rathband / RathboneFHandHand – 1934. F Rathband in WEVY diary 9 p91, replaced O Pearce while ill
RogersDonald HandHand 1937, 1938. D Rogers at Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan) Avebury (WEVY 16 p 19)
SalisburyJohn SHandHand, brought from Wales by Mr Griffiths WEVY 10, 18 Jun 1934
SandersonH / ‘Sandy’Hand
StrangeA MHandHand 1937 and Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan)
TuckAHandHand – 1934. Hand 1937(?). Also appears WEVY diart
WhiteHand
WilliamsW.E.HandWEVY diary: 1937 Diary 15 March 8, Jul 9

Staff, Visitors, Correspondents, and more!

The names below have been collected from diaries and letters in the collection. Their roles are varied: some only visited Avebury once, some might have only sent one letter, while others are vital Avebury figures. Each of them occupies a place in the Avebury network, showing how activities here related to archaeological and social goings on further afield. Our volunteers are busy sifting through each name to work out their particular relationship to Avebury.

SurnameForename(s)Role Further details
Acland HoodVisitorVisited 14 Aug 1939 with Gertrude Caton Thompson
AllenVisitorvisitors 14 Jul 1937
AndersonPVisitorListed on ‘Experts visiting site’, 1936, visited 8 Sep 1937
AndersonAvebury localWEVY diary 10, Jul 21 1934. Leased Trusloe Manor to Keiller for 1934 season. With boxing party WEVY 15, 6 Mar 1937. Local person.
ArmstrongJohnVisitorVisitors 25 June 1938, stayed two nights
Ashby RoweMr and MrsVisitorVisitor 27 August 1935
AwdryHasvice[?]VisitorVisited with Colonel Awdrey 28 Sep 1937
AwdryVisitorvisitor 29 Jun, 31 Jul, 28 Sep, 20 Oct 1937; 5 Sep 1938; 11, 28 Sep, 11 Nov 1939
AwdryVisitorVisited with husband, Colonel Awdry and friend 11 Nov 1939
BatesGeorgeSupplier/ ContractorForeman 1937, 1938, 1939 (stone repair specialist)
BathVisitorVisitor 20 Oct 1937 with Col Awdry
BellMrsVisitorVisit July 1935
BellsMrVisitorVisit July 1935, with members of the Southampton Archaeological Society. Also appears WEVY diary.
BensonGuyVisitorWEVY diary 9: May 5 1934, second husband of Lady Violet Benson “of Avebury Manor”
BensonVioletVisitorSeveral visits to site with family, 1934.
BetjemanPenelopeVisitorTravel writer. Wife of poet John Betjeman. Lived at Uffington from 1934. Visitor on site September 1934, stayed at Lawes’s hotel.
BevanSupplier/ Contractor1 Nov 1935. Contracted to lower road banks, with O Pearce, W Pearce, W Dobson recommended to assist. WEVY diary 12.
BeveridgeWilliamVisitorVisit July 1935
BlachHerbertVisitor
Boyd DawkinsVisitorVisit July 1935
BradleyEdwardSupplier/ Contractor1937. Edwin H Bradley and Son, Swindon – photograph of machinery in Album 78510319-020
BradleyEdwinSupplier/ Contractor1937. Discusses plinths with AK 16 Aug 1939
BradleySupplier/ Contractorarranged mechanical excavator 23 Jun 1937
BrailsfordJW (Mr)VisitorList of experts, 1935
Brander “of Kent”VisitorVisitor, April 1934
BrentnallHC VisitorArchaeologist. Visits 1934 and 19 Dec1939, and with wife in 1935 and July 1937(with wife and then Marlborough College boys. Features in 300 album photograph.
BrightJohnVisitor21 Oct 1935 vicar of Ebbesborne, with (driver?) Mr Oborn 
Brooke-PophamsVisitorVisitor, August 13 1935
BrownBellaVisitorVisitor May 14th – May 15th
BushVisitor17 Jun 1937 Archaeologist from Holland, staying with Piggotts
Bushe-Fox JPVisitorVisitor May 3rd, 6th, Jul 12, 1934, 7 Aug 1935. Chief inspector of Ancient Monuments according to 78510467 1934 Diary, name ‘Bushe-Fox’ correct in WEVY Diary no 9 for same dates.
ButlerGVisitor
ButlerPeterVisitorVisitor, 1935
CameVisitorVisitor 13 June 1938, of the News Chronicle
CampkinPercivalConsulted Expert6 Mar 1937. In party watching Boxing in Devizes. Stayed at Manor to examine teeth and jaws from Lanhill and WKA. From London. (Percival Sidney Campkin 1877-1965)
CarterEHVisitorVisitor, April 1934
CarterVisitorVisited 15 Oct 1938
Caton ThompsonGertrudeVisitorArchaeologist, suffragette, Egyptologist, pioneering scientific approach. Visited 14 Aug 1939 with Mrs Acland Hood
ChallestonVisitorDiary notes he is ‘Press’, visits May 1934
Chapman / Keiller / ChalmersDoris EmersonStaffVisitor April 12th – April 19th. Subsequently transferred to staff. Illustrator (1934-5) and part of excavation team (1937-9)
Chief Split and Mrs Chief Split [?!]VisitorVisitors 2 Aug 1939
ChildeVere GordonVisitorVisitor 15 Aug 1938, 30 Aug 1937 with his sister (WEVY 17)
ChittyMiss Lily Francis “Lal”Consulted ExpertPetrologist — 20000593_059, appears in this series
ChiversSupplier/ ContractorMessrs Chivers of Devizes Supplier of a steam roller for drive through Barn Close
CivilKeiller family/friendJun 17 1934. Friend/contact of WEVY. From Gosport
ClarkGrahameVisitorvisitors 30 Jul 1937. Archaeologist (1907-1995) Sir John Grahame Douglas Clarke, FSA, CBE, FBA. Marlborough Coll, Peterhouse Cambridge
ClarkKennethVisitorvisitor 9 Aug 1937 THE Kenneth Clark of ‘Civilisation’ fame. With Sir Phillip Sassoon, by air
ClementsFConsulted ExpertWEVY diary 16, 10, visited by AK et al 25 Jun 1937. Finder of a pot sherd on Overton Ridge. Grandson of Robert Clements, foreman at Silbury and at WH for Dean Merewether, archaeologist, (1779-1850)
Clifton College Archaeological SocietyVisitorVisitors16 June 1938
CoeVisitor28 Feb-1 Mar 1939. Two night stay. Dinner, then Boxing event Swindon Baths, Site visit 1 Mar. MIAR financial discussions 2 Mar.
CollingwoodVisitorVisitors 23 Aug 1937 Archaeologist (Roman specialist)
Colonel Awdrey / AwdryVisitorVisitor 28 August 1935, frequent correspondent
Congreve MVisitor18 May 1937 Visited WH re-excavation with AK. Stayed at Manor. Visitor 3 Aug 1937
Conway Film Company representativesVisitorVisitors 5 Jul 1939, permission to photograph 6 -16 Jul 1939. 22 Jul
CookDavidVisitorVisitor June 1th – June 17th. ‘To see BL’, staying at Perry’s hotel.
CookNormanStaffArchaeologist, supervisor(?) 1938. Address given 1935 diary as “Maidstone Museum, Kent”
CookVisitorVisitor 20 Aug 1938
CookAvebury local10 Oct 1935 Allotment holder
CookWTBC
CooksonVisitorVisitor 21 July 1938
CostinFredStaffMember of Keiller’s permanent staff
Cotswold Field ClubVisitorVisited 17 Aug 1939 
CrawfordOsbert Guy StanhopeVisitorVisited 11 Jul 1934 WEVY diary 10, 23 Jul 1935 WEVY 12.
Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological SocietyVisitorVisitors 7 Jun 1939, 11am to 5pm. Talks and tours.
CunningtonBenKey character – not Keiller staff etcVisitor 22 Jul,13 Sep 1935
CunningtonMaudKey character – not Keiller staff etcVisitor 22 Jul,13 Sep 1935 WEVY 12, 8 Sep 1937 WEVY 17
CunningtonRobert AnthonyVisitorVisitor, 20 Aug 1937, with father RH Cunnington
CunningtonRobert HenryVisitorWEVY diary 9, Jun 6 1934. Wilts Arch Soc with Cunningtons etc. WEVY diary 17 visitor, 20 Aug 1937 with his son, (Robert A Cunnington), 1 Sep 1937, 8 Sep 1937. Archaeologist. Cousin of Maud Pegge Cunnington and nephew of Ben Cunnington. 
DalglieshWAvebury local10 Feb 1937 winning boxer, Manton Downs Stable lad
DarlingFredAvebury local10 Feb 1937. Racehorse trainer, Beckhampton Stables. Wikipedia
DarlingHVisitorEngineer (constructional). Office of Works, visits 29Jun1934. Wonder if same visitor as Darling (constructional). Also visits 23 Jul 1935 and with wife.
DateMr and DinahVisitorVisit July 1935, Mr Date stayed 28 Sep-2 Oct, 21-24, 29-31 Oct 1938. AK visited him in London several times Sep-Oct 1938
DavidsonJamesVisitorVisitor 29 July 1938
DavidsonMr and MrsVisitorVisitor 20 August 1935
Dayrell ReedTrelawneyVisitorIntermittent correspondent. Artist, author, friend of Augustus John and George Pitt-Rivers, curator of Pitt-Rivers Museum in Farnham Dorest. Visitor May 8 1934 (WEVY 9) with Col Drew and Mr Passmore
de la F[?]MissVisitorVisitor in 1935
DenmanHTVisitorVisitor 23, 31 July, 5 Sep 1935, 25 Aug 1937 (WEVY 17)
DewarWEVY family/friend12 Aug 1937. With nephew and niece. Friends of WEVY
DibbleDLSupplier/ Contractor29 Apr 1937. Painter at Manor, died at Savernake hospital after ulcers operation on 28th Apr.
DittersVisitorVisits in 1935, ‘Ordnance Survey’.
DobsonVisitorVisitor 16 June 1938
DonovanVisitorVisitor 22 Aug 1939 with Father Horne
Drew (and Dorset Field Club)VisitorWith TDR 8 May 1834 (WEVY 9) and Dorset Field Club, 22 Jun 1939, lunched with AK
DruidOther – describe in column N18 Jun 1937. Carthorse owned by AK
DuignanVisitorMet AK at Charles St. 23 May 1939, Prehistoric Society.Visited Avebury 26 May 1939 and stayed overnight
DunbarGeorgeVisitorvisitor 28 Jun to 6 Jul 1937 (WEVY 16) and WH re-excavation 19 May 1937 (WEVY 15) Author of ‘Other Men’s Lives’ a study of primitive peoples (1938)
DuncanKayStaffWindmill Hill supervisor; also appears in letters archive as subject
DunningGCVisitorvisitor 22 Jul 1937 (an archaeologist/med pottery expert). WEVY Diary 19, 18 Jan medieval pottery forwarded for dating. WEVY diary 16, p24 dating medieval pottery
DunningConsulted Expert1937 dating medieval pottery
EarleLionelVisitorVisitor 19 May 1939 from Hilmarton
EarleVisitorVisitors 19 May 1939 from Hilmarton
ElchoVisitorMay 5 1934 (Francis David Charteris 1912-2008) Son of Lady Violet Benson. Visited with Duke of Rutland (her brother, his uncle) and Bensons
EllowayJohn RVisitorJun 17 1934. Friend/contact of WEVY. Co-founder of Basingstoke museum (opened 1931, now rehoused as The Willis Museum) with George Willis. Address 1930: 54 Queens Road, Basingstoke (WEVY diary 1 P20).
Ernest Gordon (Mr and Mrs)VisitorVisitor 28 August 1935
Ethelbert HorneDom VisitorVisitor August 15 1935, 10/11 May 1939
EvansE EstynVisitorVisitor 21 Jul 1939 with Mrs Jones. Stayed in Ebbesbourne about 1927 (WEVY 15, 17 Mar 1937)
Eyres-MonsellJoanVisitorVisitor August 12 1935
FanshaweVisitorQueen’s Boys[?], to apologise for WKA and SE sector damage from troop movements
Fawkes (Fowkes?)RogerVisitor22 April 1939. WEVY friends from 18 years ago.
FensonWVisitorVisitor August 12 1935
Foster ForbesJohnVisitorBroadcast 10 Sep 1937 ‘The Stone Age’
FoxCyrilVisitorWEVY diary 12, 4 & 21 Sep 1935 Archaeologist (1882-1967) Dir, Nat Museum Wales, close friend of Mortimer Wheeler 
FoxHoneyAvebury local
FoyleEnosWEVY family/friend21 Apr 1939. Visit to celebrate WEVY’s parents’ Golden Wedding. Full site visit with AK, DGK and NC
FoyleLilyWEVY family/friend21 Apr 1939. Visit to celebrate WEVY’s parents’ Golden Wedding. Full site visit with AK, DGK and NC
Franks (?)VVisitor
G?Y?Not givenVisitorVisitor July 19th – July 20th and August 25th – August 29th.
Garrons WilliamsSCVisitorVisitor 12 Sep 1939
GeorgeReubenVisitorVisitor, 1935
GilbertCyrilStaffMar 19 1938 “Lad” age 14ish. Working in stores, office & cleaning. 29 Mar, digging flower border in village.
GoddardEHVisitorWEVY diary 9 Visited with Wilts Arch Soc Jun 6 1934, Cunningtons etc
GoddardVisitorUnclear if different to other Goddards? Visitor in 1935, August 10.THIS IS CANON EH GODDARD OF WANHS
GoddardVisitorMrs Goddard visits with friends, 1935, August 10. Link to other Goddards?
GraemeVisitorvisitor 23 Aug 1937
Grant KingDenisStaffSee also ‘Denis Grant Price’, attached to staff 19 Aug 1938?
Grau (spelling?)Not givenVisitorVisitor May 14th – May 15th. Entered as Fraûline G.
GrayFlorenceKey character – not Keiller staff etc
GrayHarold St GeorgeKey character – not Keiller staff etc
GraysonMrsVisitor
GreaderWAvebury local20 May 1937 Landowner selling part of Plough Barrow to AK
GreenwoodVisitorVisited 16 Aug 1939. 9th Lancers, involved in Army exercises, with Lewin [?]
GreigKeiller family/friend5 Apr 1937. AK’s Uncle. Visited WH re-excavation with AK
GreigKeiller family/friend5 Apr 1937. AK’s Aunt. Visited WH re-excavation with AK
GreigKeiller family/friend5 Apr 1937. AK’s cousin? Visited WH re-excavation with AK
GwynneMrsVisitorVisitor August 1934, stayed at Red Lion, stayed Trusloe Manor
HaldenJSupplier/ ContractorFeb 22 1938 arrows and pickets sent for enamelling and repair 73B Victoria St, London SW1, returned Mar 22, more sent Mar29
HaleOther – describe in column N16 Apr 1937.Boxer. Welterweight champ 4th Hussars. 
HartJOther – describe in column N10 Feb 1937 losing boxer, Beckhampton Stable lad
HatherelAvebury local8 Oct 1935 Allotment holder
HawkesChristopherVisitor12 Apr 1937. Archaeologist. Visited WH re-excavation with AK. WEVY 22 p70 24 Apr 1939 overnight stay 
HawkesJacquettaVisitor12 Apr 1937. Archaeologist. Visited WH re-excavation with AK. 24 Apr 1939 overnight stay 
HawleyWilliamVisitorMay 14 1934. (Wm Hawley 1851-1941) Archaeologist, Stonehenge 1890s, Pokesdown 1926
HeasmanVisitorListed on ‘Experts visiting site’, 1934 Office of Works WEVY 9, Jun 3 1934, WEVY 17, 22 Aug 1937
HeathAvebury local1937 local landowner and farmer. Owner of ‘Crawford’s Circle”
Heathicote[?]Visitorvisitor 9 Aug 1937, staying for a week
HebdonStaff6 Mar 1937. In Devizes Boxing trip. WH with AK etc (WEVY 16 p13)
HempWJ and MrsVisitorVisitor, August 13 1935, 23 Aug 1937
HendersonWinifredKeiller family/friendVisitor, 1935. Friend of Keiller, introduced him to Antonia White (Linda Murray, Zest for Life)
Henman [?]Visitorvisitor 21 Aug 1937, stayed for lunch
Hobden / HebdenNot givenVisitorVisitor July 16th – July 17th. Entered as Miss Hobden.
HoggAHAVisitorVisitor 20 August 1935
HollowayTeddyStaff24 Apr 1937 Avebury schoolboy assisting WEVY in MAIR
HolmesMissVisitor
HolmesVisitorHolmeses hoe-ed by DGK 5 May 1939
HorneEthelbertVisitorVisitor 15 Aug 1935, 22 Aug 1939 with Father Donovan, 26 Sep 1935 with Fr Moody. Downside Abbey. Archaeologist and RC Prior Downside Abbey, Somerset
HTD [?]VisitorVisits with friends, 1935. WEVY 17 p28 Mr J Hunt letter 18.1.28 on C16th key.
HuntJohnVisitorVisitor 6 July 1938.
HuntJohnVisitorVisitors 21 Sep and 29 Oct 1938, 18 Nov 1939 
Huth[?]Visitorvisitor 29 Jun 1937
JacksonJ WilfredConsulted ExpertJan 15 1938 animal bones forward to him for exam and report
JacksonJohn WilfredConsulted ExpertOsteoarchaeologist (1880-1978), Manchester based Bones identified as young fox
JamesMarjorieStaffExcavation team 1934-5
JarmanHStaffMar 5 1938 new garage assistant to Phil Withil. WEVY diary 22, p40, p42 Feb 1939. AK’s driver, of the Marshall (car)
JennerLeoVisitor
JenningsVisitorVisited with Mr Date 15 Oct – 17 Oct 1938
JohnsonVisitorVisits with a friend, April 1934
JohnstonIsobelStaffStaff in 1935 – wonder if this is the same person who visits in 1934 (although note differently spelled name). Address in 1935 diary given Balgillo Crescent, Broughty Ferry, Dundee
JonesVisitorVisitor 21 Jul 1939 from Kilmundie[?] with Evans
KeillerAlexanderStaff
KennardASConsulted Expert
KnightThomas
KnightWVisitor1939
LaidlerBarbaraStaffExcavation team 1934-5
LaurenceVisitorvisitor 12 Jul 1937 with his architect
LawesHenryAvebury localField owner (1939) 
LawsonJoseph ‘Joe’Avebury local10 Feb 1937. Racehorse trainer, Manton Downs. Wikipedia
LeaskVisitorvisitor 23 Aug 1937
Lewin [?]VisitorVisited 16 Aug 1939 after ‘Army scandal’ [exercises on WKA] with Greenwood
LiddellDorothyVisitorVisitor April 30th – May 2nd. Windmill Hill supervisor who carried out pioneering work on the decoration of prehistoric pottery. IS THIS SAME AS DML?
LiddellVeronicaStaffWindmill Hill supervisor. Married Keiller
Ligh [?]VisitorVisitors 3 June 1939
LittlecottAvebury localMar 8 1938 previous occupants of (uninhabitable) Old Forge cottage, High St, Avebury, now owned and demolished by AK. Once lodged in by WEVY
LordWilfredVisitorvisitor 12 Jul 1937
LowtherAWGVisitorvisitor 26 Aug, 8 Sep 1937, 13 Jul 1939
MabyConsulted ExpertJan 17 1938 soil and charcoal samples forwarded 
MagorGillian Ione MaudStaff14 Jan 1939. With fiance Thurstan Shaw – WEVY’s friends
MahrVisitorMet AK at Charles St. 17and 23 May 1939, Prehistoric Society Council Meeting
MaidmentEllenVisitorWEVY’a aunt. Visitor, 22 Aug 1937, with daughters Barbara and Connie, WEVY’s cousins
MairVisitorVisit July 1935
MartinEricVisitorVisitor 1934 and 1935
MassinghamMr and Mrs (and hound)VisitorVisitors 25 Jul 1935. Author of ‘Downland Man’ WEVY 12 
MathesonVisitorvisits: 29 June 1937 Mr Matheson of National Trust. With wife 21 Aug 1937
MattisonVisitorvisitor 29 Jun 1937
McPhailVisitorVisitors 14 Aug 1938
Megalith SocietyVisitorNine members visited afternoon of Sunday 13 Nov 1938
MonteithVisitorVisitors 18 June 1938, stayed overnight at Avebury Manor
MontiethCynthiaVisitorVisitor 1-2 Jul 1939, with R Montieth
MontiethRonaldVisitorVisitor 30 Jun – 2 Jul 1939
MoodyVisitor26 Sep 1935 with Very Rev Prior Horne
MooreJSHVisitor
MorrisMayVisitor
MorrisVisitor2 Jun 1937, WH. With WEVY’s friend Canon O’Farrell
Mr and Mrs BennetMr and MrsVisitorVisitor August 15 1935
Mr Keiller’s cousinsVisitorMay 15 1934 CHECK with Keiller diary
NashPaulVisitorVisitor 28 June 1938. Important war artist WW2. Well documented
NeilsonVisitorVisitor 28 June 1938 same day as Paul Nash
NewallRobert SterlingVisitorVisits with Uncle, July 1935. Archaeologist and collector (1884-1974) 
Newbigin / Newbiggin“Nancy”VisitorArchaeologist, particularly noted for worked on rock art and Celtic sites in Ireland. Full name Agnes Jane Waugh Newbigin
Newbury Field ClubVisitorVisitors 20 July 1938
NichollsVisitor1939 – which source?
Nicol / NicholVisitorWEVY Diary Aug 30 1934 page 119
NormanGraceVisitorVisitor in 1935 – 2 July
NormanMiss EVisitorVisitor in 1935 – 4 July Archaeologist, assisted Dorothy Liddell at Hembury Fort (and so knew WEVY)
NorringtonAPVisitorVisitor 1 Jul 1939
O’FarrellVisitorJun 1937, WH. From Aldershot. Friend of WEVY with Fr Morris
O’NeilB.H.StJ.VisitorVisitor September 5th – September 6th, stayed at Perry’s
ObornVisitor2 Oct 1935 some time motor bus driver from Ebbesbourne, with Rev and Mrs Bright. (WEVY 12 20 Nov 1935)
Ormsby GoreVisitorThe ‘First Commissioner of Works’, Office of Works, visits in 1934, 14 Aug 1935
Ottley [?]FHBVisitorVisitor August 12 1935
ParadiseDouglasAvebury localVillager. Blacksmith, owner of “Goatacre” 1 Sep 1938. Paradise’s Cottage demolished in 1938 by MIAR
ParrishColonel and MrsVisitorVisit in 1935
ParsonsLouisConsulted ExpertListed on ‘Experts visiting site’, Visitor June 28th – June 29th, 1934, stayed at Perry’s hotel. Plaster casts of stone fractures to be repaired.
PassmoreVisitorMay 8 1934, with Col Drew and TDR 
Peak-Garland?Avebury localManor Farm, landowner
Peak-GarlandAvebury local
PeakeHaroldVisitorVisits with two friends, April 1934. Well known – has ADS record?
PerryCDAvebury localFeb 15 1938 Owner, Avebury Private Hotel (“Perry’s”)
PerryAvebury localJun 17 1934. Proprietor of Perry’s Private Hotel, Avebury
PetoVisitorVisited and lunched with AK 17 Aug 1939. 9th Lancers, with Thornton re army scandal
PhilipsCWVisitorVisitor 5 Sep1935, 31 Oct 1939, stayed with Piggots 22 Jun 1937 (WEVY 16 p21) 
PiggottPeggyVisitorVisitor 25 June to 5 Jul 1937
PiggottStuartStaffArchaeologist
Plante/PlantGVisitorExpert plasterer employed by Messrs Turner, Lord and Co., London.Discussion to take plaster casts 21 Sep 1937. Plastering 28 Sep 1937 and casts September 1938, 22 Jul1939
PriceVisitorVisits May 1934
PricterAvebury local12,14 Oct 1935 Allotment holder
PritchardVisitorVisitors 3 June 1939
PughVisitorJun 6 1934. Wilts Arch Soc with Cunningtons etc
PugsleyJosephSupplier/ ContractorHeavy machinery hire – photograph 78510319-019
RabyFJEVisitorOffice of Works. Visitor 26 Aug 1935, 16 Aug 1937 – stayed at Manor (WEVY 17). Frequent correspondent of AK.
RadcliffeRAvebury localTenant. Inside repairs to her cottage on Swindon Road 30 Nov 1939 by GB
RadfordRalegh CAVisitor22 Aug 1935 Archaeologist (1900-1998)FSA with van Giffen
RaffertyVisitorMet AK at Charles St. 23 May 1939, Prehistoric Society. Visited Avebury 26 May 1939 and stayed overnight
RawlinsFrankAvebury localVillager- Garage owner. Drove WEVY to Guildford (WEVY 15, 22 Feb 1937) Worked in Manor garage till 26 Feb 1937 
ReedOther – describe in column NMar 12 1938 AK presented bravery award to 13 year old Reed at Netheravon boys boxing contests
Reginald WilliamsonMrsVisitorVisit July 1935
RickardsMargeryStaffWEVY diary 16 one of two garage assistants MIAR, wages clerk from 26 June 1937
RobertsVisitorvisitor 14 Jul 1937
RumboldAnthonyVisitorVisitor, August 13 1935
RutlandVisitorMay 5 1934 (JHM Manners 1888-1940) Brother of Lady Violet Benson. Visited with Lord Elcho (his nephew) and Bensons. 
S [?]RobertVisitorVisitors 10 Sep 1938
SassoonPhilipVisitorvisitor 9 Aug 1937 with Kenneth Clark, arrived by air. First Commissioner of Works in 1937. Under Secretary of State for Air, managing RAF
SewellVisitor4 May 1937. Visited WH re-excavation. Friend of DC???
ShawCharles ThurstanConsulted ExpertVisitor 30 April 1934, (WEVY 9), August 19 1935 to 23 Aug 1935 excavating (WEVY 12). Visited: NW Sector 12 Jul 1937(WEVY 16), SW sector with WEVY (diary 22) 14 Jan 1939 with fiancee Ione Magor.
Simking [?]LanceVisitorVisitor 18 Sep 1939
SimpsonFJOther – describe in column N16 Apr 1937. Boxer. Amateur lightweight champion GB 1936
SirlVisitorWEVY diary 10, Jul 19 1934. Of Ebbesbourne Wake, lodger at WEVY’s parental home (WEVY diary 13 p16), visited with Mr Street,
SmithAlanVisitorVisited site with Date and Miss Jennings 16 Oct, and 17 Oct , 22-24,29 Oct 1938. Stayed overnight 7 Jun 1939
SmithIsobelKey character – not Keiller staff etcPioneering prehistorian. Excavated at Avebury and published a synthesis of the Keiller excavations in 1965
SmithJanetVisitorVisitor May 14th – May 15th
SmithKCVisitorList of visitors to Avebury, April 1934, staying at Perry’s Hotel
SmithNot given – separate to JanetVisitorVisitor May 14th – May 15th. Entered as ‘Miss Smith’, separate to Janet Smith.
SmithVisitorVisitor to Manor 28 Aug 1938
SmithVisitorAug 4 1935. Family friends of WEVY
SoulMr Soul (of Amesbury)VisitorVisitor 20 August 1935
SpainPVisitorJul 7 1935. Sidney Sussex College, Camb pal with Thurstan Shaw
SpenceHegmatKeiller family/friend1939 diary. Ski-ing friend of AK since 1920s, mentioned alongside Guy Nixon, Chris Mackintosh and Colin Wyatt
StephensonVisitorVisitor 20 Oct 1937 with Col Awdry
StoneJFSVisitorArchaeologist. Corresponded with Young, see folder, 20000593 WEVY diary 9. Visitor Jun 6 1934 with Wilts Arch Soc and Cunningtons. see Wikipedia
StrappsAnnie AlbertinaWEVY family/friendWEVY’s aunt. Visitor 19 Aug 1937. With WEVY’s parents. Chauffeur driven by Vickers, at AK’s invitation
StreetVisitorJul 19 1934. Of Ebbesbourne Wake WEVY’s friend, with Miss Sirl
SturdeyBernardStaffStaff 1934, visits 23 Jul 1935
SymingtonJVisitorVisitor with Date and A Smith 22-24, 29 Oct 1938. Scottish Geologist?
TVisitorVisitor 25 June 1937
TaylorAvebury localHosted listening of recording of J Foster-Forbes’s broadcast 17/22 Sep 1937
Taylor / TaylourSorelStaff10 Sep 1939 Section-Leader ATS [Auxilliary Territorial Service] (1939 diary)
TeischlerHansVisitorvisitor 30 Jul 1937. 
ThorneycroftMr and MrsVisitorVisit 9 July 1935
ThorntonVisitorVisited and lunched with AK 17 Aug 1939 with Peto re army scandal
Thurloe LeedsEVisitorVisitor August 15 1935
TibbleAvebury localJun 18 1934. Nursed R Gale (Hand) who died that morning
TitcombeGeorgeAvebury localAppears WEVY diary 10. Also WEVY diary 12, 24 Oct 1935, measuring for a fence up to the Toll House
Tom of the Grab’Tom DAMON? Supplier/ ContractorGrab operative 26 Sep 1938. WEVY 20 see queries.
Van Asch [?]VisitorFrom New Zealand (WEVY 16 p 20)Blasting tree stumps July 1937, finished 19 July. Visited 13 Oct 1939 with wife
van GiffenAlbert EggesVisitor22 Aug 1935 Dutch Archaeologist (1884-1973) with Radford
VatcherFaith Other – describe in column NCurator of the Alexander Keiller Museum. Excavated Avebury in 1969 and 1976
VatcherLanceOther – describe in column N
VawlettVisitor
VickersWAvebury local1 Mar 1937. A Mechanic? Replaced F Rawlins in Manor garage.
VickersWalterStaffWEVY 16, 3 Aug 1937 assistant chauffeur at Manor. WEVY 19, Mar 5 1938 now ‘ex’ garage assistant to Phil Withil
VigorVisitorMr (Captain) and Mrs Vigor visit twice April 1934, Mrs Vigor and Miss Vigor also visit. Visit again in 1935. East Kennett Manor
Violet PakenhamVisitorSpelling uncertain. Visitor, August 13 1935
ViveashRoseVisitorMiss Vyvash in diary. Visitor, 1934
W G S VisitorWiltshire Geological Society visit (220 members)
Wagstaffe (perhaps a misspelling? Think this is Barbara WagstaffVisitorAppears as visitor in 1935 – visits on same date as Miss Piggott. Note that Wagstaff later takes photographs at Sutton Hoo (1939), at which the Piggots excavate. Very significant if she also is at Avebury.
WallisVisitorvisitor 20 Aug 1937
WallisVisitorJun 29 1934, landowner, of Cherhill, colleague of Mr Wright, WEVY’s friend
WaltersVisitorA descendent of Dr William Stukeley, visits 28 August 1935
WatsonWSVisitorvisitor 3 Jul 1937, staying at the Manor [Avebury]
WheelerMortimerConsulted Expert
WhiteFAvebury localTenant. Inside repairs to her cottage on Swindon Road 30 Nov 1939 by GB
WildeJimmyOther – describe in column NReferee, 9 Feb 1937. Famous and controversial Welsh boxer (active 1911-23) Wikipedia. Local training stables competition boxing referee with AK in Marlborough.
WilderPhyllisStaff
WilliamsLetticeVisitorVisitor 4 Aug 1938
WilliamsPVisitorVisitor 4 Aug 1938
WilliamsOther – describe in column NAppears in undated photographs from Denis Grant King
Williams-FreemanVisitorJun 6 1934. Wilts Arch Soc with Cunningtons etc, 20 Oct 1937
WillisGeorge WVisitorJun 17 1934. Friend/contact of WEVY. Co-founder of original Basingstoke museum (opened 1931, now rehoused as The Willis Museum) with John R Elloway. Clockmaker and jeweller at 2 Wote Street, Basingstoke. (WEVY 1, P19). Mayor of Basingstoke 1923-4
WilsonVisitorVisitor and ‘Medicine Office of Health’, 1934
WithilPhilStaffMember of Keiller’s permanent staff. Chauffeur. PHOTO WEVY 19 p44
WoolleyLeonardVisitorvisitor 22 Aug 1937, 14Aug1938 Famous archaeologist, Ur, Mesopotam
WoolleyVisitorvisitor 22 Aug 1937 with husband, above
WrightVisitorJun 29 1934 School Inspector, friend of WEVY. With Mr Wallis
YoungAmyVisitorWEVY’s sister-in-law. 19 Sep 1937 with husband Bert and WEVY’s mother
YoungBertramVisitorWEVY’s brother. 19 Sep 1937 with wife Amy and WEVY”s mother
YoungEdward TomWEVY family/friend21 Apr 1939. Visit to celebrate WEVY’s parents’ Golden Wedding. Full site visit with AK, DGK and NC. WEVY 17 day visit 19 Aug 1937, chauffeur driven by Vickers, at AK’s invitation
YoungFannyWEVY family/friend21 Apr 1939. Visit to celebrate WEVY’s parents’ Golden Wedding. Full site visit with AK, DGK and NC. WEVY 17 day visit 19 Aug 1937, chauffeur driven by Vickers, at AK’s invitation. Visit 19 Sep 1937 with Bert and Amy.
YoungWilliamStaffSite Foreman. Many sources!
Zennor / ZennerFConsulted ExpertJan 17 1938 soil and charcoal samples forwarded