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Young archaeologists and time-travelling diaries

By Georgia (BA Archaeology, University of York)

I’m Georgia, an undergraduate student at the University of York, currently completing my dissertation on communicating archaeological techniques to children.

Georgia welcoming the young archaeologists to Avebury.

Back in December 2023 I welcomed a branch of the Young Archaeologists’ Club (YAC) to Avebury, to explore the henge, discover how the Avebury Papers team goes about transcribing diary entries, and explore the ways that archaeologists have historically made records. 

Walking around the South West sector at Avebury.

The session began with a short walk through the henge, where we talked about Keiller’s method of excavation and restoration at Avebury.

There were two activities, separated by a ten-minute break where the children had a snack and a drink. The first activity was based on transcription, where the children were given a range of extracts to try to detangle. The diary pages that were used in the session were taken from Denis Grant King’s 1938 account of his time at the site, as well as the 1934 excavation log written mostly by Alexander Keiller himself, with some entries penned by Stuart Piggott when he was absent.

These diaries represent a range from most complex handwriting (Keiller) to least difficult (Piggott). While I was researching and planning this session in August 2023, I visited the Avebury Papers volunteer team who were in the process of transcribing the excavation logs, which prompted conversation surrounding Alexander Keiller’s slightly illegible penmanship and inspired this activity. 

Young archaeologists have a go at transcribing handwriting from copies of archival materials.

As they had a go with transcription, a few of the kids asked about what the “answers” were for unfamiliar or indiscernible words. This began a discussion about what the Avebury Papers volunteers do when a word is unidentifiable, such as leaving a blank space or inserting their best guess between square brackets to show their uncertainty. Some of the children incorporated this methodology successfully into their own transcriptions.

The second activity asked the children to attempt to write their own diary entries, imagining that they had spent a day excavating on site. 

The influence of the sources from the previous task was evident in some of the children’s diary entries. An example of this is in the picture below, in which it is clear that the child noticed and incorporated some of the style of Keiller’s excavation log, such as the abbreviation of names (e.g. Alexander Keiller becomes AK), the description of the weather, and his brief sentences. Although I’m glad they didn’t incorporate his indecipherable handwriting! 

An entry for ‘July 1924’ by one of the young archaeologists.

To end, I want to give a big thank you to the YAC members for being so enthusiastic, and to the YAC leaders for all their help throughout the planning process and the session itself.


You may freely view, download, and reuse the diary extracts (images and transcriptions) below. Right click to save images.

West Kennet Avenue 1934 excavation diary,
accession number 78510467

78510467: 19-20 April, written by Alexander Keiller, spread 71a-71b

78510467: 19-20 April, written by Alexander Keiller, spread 71a-71b.

*

78510467: 5-6 May, written by Alexander Keiller, spread 79a-79b

78510467: 5-6 May, written by Alexander Keiller, spread 79a-79b.

*

78510467: 2-3 August, written by Stuart Piggott, spreads 123-124

*

Denis Grant King, ‘Journal of my visit to Avebury:
Book Two’, accession number 1732623-002

Extract from 15 November 1938, spread 28

1732623-002: ‘Journal of my visit to Avebury: Book Two’, extracts from 15 November 1938, by Denis Grant King, spread 28.
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Avebury Papers: Artist Commission Announcement

We are delighted to announce our two Artist Commissions for the Avebury Papers.

Gayle Chong Kwan and Kialy Tihngang will be exploring the Avebury archive in the coming year, and we are excited to see what they make of the archive’s varied materials and stories.

Our artist commission began with an open call in September, and we were overwhelmed with the quantity and quality of proposals. Avebury clearly inspires creativity, and we look forward to seeing the new works, and ways of understanding Avebury, emerge through this commission.

Gayle Chong Kwan’s and Kialy Tihngang’s proposals caught our attention for their serious attention to the complexities of archives and archive practices. Their practices are varied, but what both artists have in common is an open and expansive approach to mixed materials.

A portrait of Gayle Chong Kwan, photograph courtesy of the artist.

Gayle Chong Kwan

Gayle Chong Kwan is an award-winning multidisciplinary artist and academic, of Chinese /Mauritian and Scottish heritage, whose work is exhibited internationally in galleries and the public realm. Her large-scale photographic and video work, immersive installations, and sensory ritual events act within and against histories of oppression and positions the viewer as one element in a cosmology of the political, social and ecological. She has a PhD in Fine Art on ‘Imaginal Travel’ from the Royal College of Art, UK (2023) and has been Artist Fellow at Compton Verney (2024), the British Museum (2023), V&A Museum (2021), Ca’ Foscari University Venice (2020).

A portrait of Kialy Tihngang holding ‘Untitled (‘Useless Machines’), 2021, photograph courtesy of the artist.

Kialy Tihngang

Kialy Tihngang is a multidisciplinary Glasgow-based visual artist, working in sculpture, video, textiles, animation and photomontage, often in collaboration with performers and musicians, involving elaborate handmade sets, costumes and props. As a first-generation British-Cameroonian, she is particularly interested in the constructed (and therefore inherently deconstructable) nature of British national identity.

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Event: Representing Avebury’s Assemblages

With a new year, we have a new round of events coming up! Our first update of 2024 will explore assemblages, and how to photograph them. All welcome!

The Avebury Papers Community Update: Representing Avebury’s Assemblages

Update 26 Feb: please note slight location and time change from previously advertised

Monday 4 March, 1:30pm – 3.30pm

The Chapel, Green Street, Avebury

Free! Please register for a seat via this form.

Join Dr Ben Chan, lithics expert and postdoctoral researcher for the Avebury Papers project for this community update and feedback session.

This event will explore assemblages of objects. Assemblages are simply groups of things that we give meaning to. Archaeologists are constantly in the process of gathering things into one type of group or other, and the same was indeed true of people in prehistory. This talk details how the Avebury Papers team set out to capture the material qualities of some of Avebury’s assemblages through photography. The results provide representations of people’s attempts to assemble together parts of Avebury in both the past and present.

We’d like to invite your thoughts on these photographs, and explore the questions that they raise for you! We’ll be making notes during this event so that your feedback can shape the future design of the digital archive.

Dr Ben Chan arranges arrowheads from West Kennet Avenue, Alexander Keiller Museum, photograph by the Avebury Papers.
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An Avebury Story

By Dushyant Naresh (MSc Digital Archaeology, University of York)

I’ve never really believed in magic, or the supernatural, or a higher power. But I have to admit that there is something undoubtedly magical about Avebury and the prehistoric landscape it is nestled in.

Maybe it’s the size of the stones, or how large the circles are, or the fact that you can walk right up to them and touch them knowing that thousands of years ago, another human being was probably doing the exact same thing, thinking the same thoughts, and feeling this same sense of wonderment. It’s this blurred line between archaeology and emotion that gets the hairs on the back of my neck tingling.

Coincidentally, one core exercise of The Avebury Papers project is to translate some of these emotions into another medium – a “creative intervention” – be it poetry, prose, or something else. I guess you’d call that “art”.

I am the worst artist of all time.

However, I know how to make videos, and I like experimentation. So, for my Master’s dissertation, I went to Avebury with a dodgy microphone and a 360° camera to try and capture a mixture of both archaeology and emotion. I then created a “choose your own adventure” style immersive story using the videos I shot, allowing viewers to pick what kind of anecdote or theme they were interested in experiencing. This was all programmed and downloaded onto a VR headset for a full immersive experience, and tested with dozens of participants.

Some people liked the project, and many others didn’t. That’s the nature of any creative endeavour, and is what makes the whole process exciting. I hope to go back to Avebury soon to reignite that sense of curiosity and create something new, and hopefully, divisive.

If you haven’t visited Avebury, I highly recommend it. In the meantime, if you’d like to experience it virtually, you can watch/play An Avebury Story on YouTube.

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Avebury is FAKE (and other archive stories)

On 13 October 2023, a news website decided to run with a rather scandalous headline about Avebury.

The headline reads: “Revealed: The World Heritage ancient stone circle at Avebury is FAKE – with photographs showing that the stones were actually erected in the 1930s… and some are upside down”.

Screengrab of a newspaper headline: “Revealed: The World Heritage ancient stone circle at Avebury is FAKE – with photographs showing that the stones were actually erected in the 1930s… and some are upside down”.

The cat is well and truly out of the bag! We’ve been found out!

But wait. Before panic sets in, it’s worth exploring this article a little further.

First of all, the article writer seems to have picked up month-old news about Historic England’s freshly digitised Avebury materials. You can explore the “Series of slides taken by Alexander Keiller showing the standing stones and excavations at Avebury and West Kennet Avenue” over on Historic England’s website. It’s lovely to see Avebury in the dreamy colours of almost 100-year-old slides.

Historic England tweet from 13 September 2023: “We’ve recently digitised a set of colour slides by Alexander Keiller showing the stones and excavations at Avebury and West Kennet Avenue in 1938-1939 [sic], including this view of Stone 9.”

For those of us familiar with Avebury, it’s easy to laugh or eye roll at the October newspaper headline. But, this article, and some of its comments, are actually very interesting as a case study of how histories are made and re-made over time.

The 1930s excavations have never been a secret. During the excavations Keiller and his team frequently showed visitors and journalists around. One scrapbook in the Alexander Keiller Museum collection includes pasted headlines and cuttings from 1938, describing a “new wonder of the world” being unearthed.

Avebury has been in and out of the news ever since. However, with news cycles moving quickly, we might forgive people for missing stories, especially if they don’t live in the area, or just aren’t looking for archaeology stories. We can certainly understand that some folks can’t access the archive or up to date research (even 100 year old research), as so much information is behind pay walls or exists only in a physical location.

Comments quoted in the article are a good reminder not to take knowledge about Avebury for granted: apparently even members of a ‘specialist’ Avebury Facebook group and a ‘regular visitor’ were shocked at the news of Avebury’s 1930s restoration. (Although, it has to be said, a quick browse of the aforementioned Facebook group reveals many other members were quick to point out the article’s inaccuracies, and the “common knowledge” status of Avebury’s restoration).

These quotations bring me to thinking about how emotions and histories are linked together, and how places exist in people’s heads as much as the physical world.

Ask 100 people what “Avebury” is, and you could get 100 different answers. While Avebury is a very real place, it’s also a symbol, or concept, or idea. It exists in the imagination of everyone who has ever heard of it. Every visitor to Avebury also of course experiences it in a unique way.

So, a challenge that we’re thinking about as part of the Avebury Papers project is how to communicate Avebury’s complex stories to people who all have very different starting points.

Using a scandalous headline can arguably be an effective way to gain attention. But I’d be a bit nervous to use such an approach: it entrenches some negative views of archaeology which have repercussions at a wider scale. The reoccurring myth that archaeologists are keeping secrets from everyone perpetuates a pernicious distrust of expert knowledge, which often goes hand in hand with some damaging conspiracy theories that seek to fracture society.

Screengrab from the news article, including a quotation attributed to Historic England: “these fascinating photos show the extent that modern interpretation has contributed to their current appearance”.

The quotations from Historic England in the article are straightforward enough: “these fascinating photos show the extent that modern interpretation has contributed to their current appearance”.

But I’d like to dwell a little more with the language that people use to describe their reactions to the photographs. It seems like some people don’t want to know about Avebury’s modern interpretations. The journalist reported that people felt ‘shocked’ or ‘conned’ by the photographs. These are big emotions: more knowledge seems to ruin something about Avebury.

And they lead me to some questions which I’d like to explore more as the project progresses.

  • How do photos of 1930s Avebury make people feel about the site?
  • What role do such pictures have in people’s experience of Avebury?
  • What kinds of emotions should an archive project try and provoke?
  • How can we use archival material to tell multiple stories of Avebury?

Perhaps you’d like to offer your answers in the comments!

Photograph of workers re-erecting stones in the South East Sector at Avebury, 1939. Alexander Keiller Museum Accession Number 20004243-002.
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The Avebury Papers: Artist brief

[First posted 18 September 2023; edited 21 November 2023]

Our call for submissions closed at midnight, end of day Monday 20 November.

You can find an archive version of the artist brief via this Google doc. But please note that we will not be accepting further submissions.

To sign up to notifications regarding more Archaeology and Heritage Creative opportunities, fill out the form here: https://forms.gle/goFr4yNpFG7uYz487 The email volume is low, maximum 5-10 emails every six months.

Colleen and Fran


Creative Process Timescale

September 2023: Artist Brief Circulated

30 October 2023, 09:00-10:00 GMT: Online information session for interested applicants: a brief introduction to the Avebury archive and an opportunity to ask questions to the team. Please email Dr Colleen Morgan for the Zoom link.

20 November 2023: Deadline for artist proposals. Submissions due by midnight GMT, no late submissions may be accepted.

8 December 2023: Shortlist of artists will be contacted for interviews [UPDATE 23 November: due to a high volume of submissions, we anticipate contacting a shortlist later in December. Thank you for your patience, we cannot give a more certain date at present].

8 – 16 January 2024: Artists will be interviewed (online, via Zoom)

19 January 2024: Commissioned artists will be notified and briefing sessions will be arranged

January 2024 – October 2024: Commissioned artists work with the archive

October 2024 – April 2025: Commissioned artists share work with the Avebury Papers team, and discuss steps for archiving and exhibition

June 2025: Exhibition at Avebury

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Avebury Papers on Outside the Box podcast

Just in time for Volunteers’ Week, 1-7 June in the UK, the Archives and Records Association (ARA) invited us to take part in their Outside the Box podcast!

Ros Cleal (Curator at AKM), Ros Preuss, Bev Stapleton, Prue Saunders (all volunteers with the digitisation project), and I chatted about how the project has been progressing, what it’s like volunteering at Avebury, and the kinds of stories we’ve started to explore.

You can listen to the interview on Spotify or via Libsyn.

Click here to listen on Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/episode/4YAPN9i8IIMKk38dNTyu44?si=o4oYm4YOShup4xG3_qznFw

Click here for Libsyn: https://sites.libsyn.com/448569/website/volunteer-special-the-avebury-papers

A huge thanks to host Deborah for inviting us onto the show!

Outside the Box is a podcast about archives and the wonders they contain. Outside the Box is part of the Archives and Records Association’s Explore Your Archive campaign.

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Avebury People

Can you help us to identify the people who made the modern Avebury?

The Alexander Keiller Museum archive holds hundreds of photographs of people. The photographs span several archaeological campaigns across the decades, including excavations run by Harold St George Gray in Avebury Henge in the 1900-10s, and the Alexander Keiller-led work at Avebury and West Kennet Avenue in the 1930s.

As we progress through the project, we hope to identify as many people as we can in these photographs. Our volunteers are busy transcribing captions (when they exist), and collecting names from letters and diaries.

Do you recognise any of these excavators? Perhaps older relatives have photographs that show familiar faces?

Workmen during the 1909 excavations led by Harold St George Gray. Alexander Keiller Museum accession number 78510162.
Workers in 1937 at Avebury. Alexander Keiller Museum accession number 20004218-002.
Workers in 1939, erecting stones in Avebury henge. Alexander Keiller Museum accession number 20004243-002.

The fabulous digitisation volunteer team flag whenever a person is mentioned in letters and diaries. I then compile the names into a list, including details about the person’s role, if known. Later down the line, we hope to be able to match up names with photographs, as we work out who excavated which stone, or who was on site on a given week.

Our working list of ‘Avebury People’ is updated almost daily, but this blog post was last updated 19 February 2024. Check back again as we add new names!

If you recognise any names – especially if you have any photographs – we’d love to hear from you . Leave your comments below to be in touch, or email Fran dot Allfrey at York dot ac dot uk.

Avebury ‘Hands’

During the 1930s excavations at Avebury, the hired workmen were known as ‘hands’ in the diaries and other archive documents. These men lived in the surrounding villages and towns, some travelling quite some way to work. Many of them were agricultural labourers, but some of them returned ‘archaeological worker’ on census records.

SurnameForename(s)Role Further details
AlexanderHandAssisting George Bates 7 Oct 1939
AshA EHand1939, left for RAF Yatesbury job 27 Nov 1939
AshHenryHandHand – 1934, 1935, 1937. Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan). Made Foreman 20 Jul 1938
BallRichard / ‘Turnpike’HandTurnpike’ Ball of Turnpike Cottage. Hand 1937
BallArthur GeorgeHandHand, 1934, 35.
BirdJHand10 Jan 1939, tree-felling under Phil Withal. WEVY diary 22.
BlakeGeorgeHandMentioned in full 7 Jul 1939, 23 Oct 1939 (with Tommy King).Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan)
BlakeHarold JHandHand 1935, 1937 Absent without leave 25 Sep 1937. Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan)
BlakeLionelHand20 Sep 1937 Blake H mentioned 25 Sep 1937. Lionel Blake employed 8 Feb 1937 (WEVY 15) Second carter (haymaking) at WH (WEVY 16 p12) 
BlakeWHand1938: one of 13 men engaged at start of season
BowsherGeorgeHandHand – 1934, 1935. Filling in ‘ganger’ WEVY 9, Jun 7 1934
BrindleWilliam Henry JosephHandHand – 1935. 1937 Entered as Brindel (H) in the diary. Poultry runs, WEVY 12, 24 Oct 1935. Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan)
BuckinghamGeorgeHandHand 1937, 1938 (mistakenly recorded as ‘Buckland’ by NC?
BuckinghamNormanHandLeft 20 Oct 1939 due to call up. Stone Erecting gang member
BullArthur WilliamHandHand – 1934. Hand 1937, 1938
BullBertHandHand – 1935 Experienced wire fencer of Wint Monkton (WEVY 12, 31 Oct) Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan). Excavation gang Avebury (WEVY 16 p19) Hand 1937 Absent without leave 25 Sep 1937 “Turnpike’ [allotments]
BullLewis AdolphusHandHand. 1937 (21 June WEVY16). Carter. Grass cutting . 1939 Register next door to Sam Pratt Wint Monkton. b 29Mar1913
BullWalterHand
ButcherHandHand 1937
CableAlbert / Bert. Initials AH.Hand23 Aug 1937 Cable and Cable (L) mentioned on tasks: Two of this surname. B is given in 1939 diary, and at Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan). 10 Jan1939: Bert Cable on tree felling (WEVY 22).
CableLeonardHandHand – 1934. Hand 1937, 1938, 1939. Employed 8 Feb 1937 (WEVY 15). Tree-felling 10 Jan 1939 (WEVY 22)
ChiversBert (Herbert)HandHand 1937. Excavation gang
DobsonWilliam THandHand 1935, 1937 Erecting gang 1935 W Dobson WEVY diary 22 10 Jan 1939, tree-felling under P Withil
FishlockFrankHandHand – 1934. Hand 1937, assistant to Mr Van Asch (WEVY 16 p20), Foreman 1938
GaleRHandHand – 1934.
GoddardJHandHand – 1934, 1935. Separate to S. Goddard. Erecting gang 1935
GoddardS: H in WEVY diary 9HandHand – 1934. Former Windmill Hill hand. WEVY diary 9 has H Goddard, Apr 10
GriffithsAHandChief assistant to Griffiths, stone erector, from Caernarvon. WEVY 12 Sep 6 1935 
GriffithsG – given as GD in diary, see bio sketchHandGriffiths – ‘drills’ – so D is not part of name. Office of Works foreman WEVY 10 Jun 14 1934 Previously at Stonehenge. Raising stones.
GriffithsWilliamHandGriffiths in charge of stone erecting, with two assistants. From Caernarvon (WEVY 12, 25 Oct 1935)
HambidgeErnest Henry (Hambridge?)HandHand – 1934. Former Windmill Hill hand. Photo in WEVY diary!
HancockGHandDiary 20 p114Jun1938: one of 13 men engaged at start of season
HarperJohnHandHand – 1934.WEVY 9 p157 : John Harper of West Kennet
HeadWHandHand mentioned 21 Nov 1938, 19 Jun and13 Jul 1939. ‘Footman’ living at AM 1939 — CHECK THIS – – where is this info from? 1939 Register, Avebury Manor. W Head,WEVY diary 22, 10 Jan 1939, Hand
Hillier/HillyerHandMentioned September 1938
HorsallHHandApr 9 1934 One of six original ‘Hands’ Same as B Horsell in Keiller diary? ‘Herbert’ otherwise ‘Bert’
HorsellBHandHand – 1934.
Jock Hand1937 – Hand and in charge of concreting gang.
JonesJCHandCarpenter 1939
KingTommy’HandPatrolling site 1 August 1937, working 23 Oct 1939 with George Blake
LanfearWFHandHand – 1934. WEVY 9 has WF Lanfear p157 of Avebury
LiggerHandFirst mentioned with Strange 11 Oct 1937. May not be a Hand.
LoveseySHandHand – 1934. Hand 1937 WEVY 9 has S Lovesey p157 of Wint Monkton. Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan)
LoxtonMHandExcavating with Bert Bull an W Knight 19 Oct 1937. Diary 20 p1 14Jun1938: one of 13 men engaged at start of season
LushJohnHandForeman for Gray – 1909. ‘From Dorchester’
Mathews / MatthewsW / BillHandSpelled 2 ways across diaries
NashBHandHe did two seasons at WH, then 1939 till 27Nov at Avebury. Of Winterbourne Monkton. 
NashAHand1939 diary. Is this person related to or same as A Nash, perhaps? Probably refers to the same person, AE (Bert) Nash.
NashStanleyHandHand 1937 Excavation gang
PearceOHandHand – 1934. Former Windmill Hill hand. Excavation foreman at least 1937-9. Older than W? [‘snr’ in diary is scratched out]. 
PearceWHandHand – 1934. Former Windmill Hill hand. Contracted to Bevan Nov 1935 (WEVY 12)
PrattSamuel HaroldHandHand – 1934,1938 Former Windmill Hill hand. Allotment holder 1935
RadbourneErnestHandHand – 1934. Older brother of Francis
RadbourneFrancisHandHand – 1934. Younger brother of Ernest
RandallFrankHandFirst mention18 Oct 1938
Rathband / RathboneFHandHand – 1934. F Rathband in WEVY diary 9 p91, replaced O Pearce while ill
RogersDonald HandHand 1937, 1938. D Rogers at Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan) Avebury (WEVY 16 p 19)
SalisburyJohn SHandHand, brought from Wales by Mr Griffiths WEVY 10, 18 Jun 1934
SandersonH / ‘Sandy’Hand
StrangeA MHandHand 1937 and Re-excavation of WH 1937 (WEVY 15, 5 Jan)
TuckAHandHand – 1934. Hand 1937(?). Also appears WEVY diart
WhiteHand
WilliamsW.E.HandWEVY diary: 1937 Diary 15 March 8, Jul 9

Staff, Visitors, Correspondents, and more!

The names below have been collected from diaries and letters in the collection. Their roles are varied: some only visited Avebury once, some might have only sent one letter, while others are vital Avebury figures. Each of them occupies a place in the Avebury network, showing how activities here related to archaeological and social goings on further afield. Our volunteers are busy sifting through each name to work out their particular relationship to Avebury.

SurnameForename(s)Role Further details
Acland HoodVisitorVisited 14 Aug 1939 with Gertrude Caton Thompson
AllenVisitorvisitors 14 Jul 1937
AndersonPVisitorListed on ‘Experts visiting site’, 1936, visited 8 Sep 1937
AndersonAvebury localWEVY diary 10, Jul 21 1934. Leased Trusloe Manor to Keiller for 1934 season. With boxing party WEVY 15, 6 Mar 1937. Local person.
ArmstrongJohnVisitorVisitors 25 June 1938, stayed two nights
Ashby RoweMr and MrsVisitorVisitor 27 August 1935
AwdryHasvice[?]VisitorVisited with Colonel Awdrey 28 Sep 1937
AwdryVisitorvisitor 29 Jun, 31 Jul, 28 Sep, 20 Oct 1937; 5 Sep 1938; 11, 28 Sep, 11 Nov 1939
AwdryVisitorVisited with husband, Colonel Awdry and friend 11 Nov 1939
BatesGeorgeSupplier/ ContractorForeman 1937, 1938, 1939 (stone repair specialist)
BathVisitorVisitor 20 Oct 1937 with Col Awdry
BellMrsVisitorVisit July 1935
BellsMrVisitorVisit July 1935, with members of the Southampton Archaeological Society. Also appears WEVY diary.
BensonGuyVisitorWEVY diary 9: May 5 1934, second husband of Lady Violet Benson “of Avebury Manor”
BensonVioletVisitorSeveral visits to site with family, 1934.
BetjemanPenelopeVisitorTravel writer. Wife of poet John Betjeman. Lived at Uffington from 1934. Visitor on site September 1934, stayed at Lawes’s hotel.
BevanSupplier/ Contractor1 Nov 1935. Contracted to lower road banks, with O Pearce, W Pearce, W Dobson recommended to assist. WEVY diary 12.
BeveridgeWilliamVisitorVisit July 1935
BlachHerbertVisitor
Boyd DawkinsVisitorVisit July 1935
BradleyEdwardSupplier/ Contractor1937. Edwin H Bradley and Son, Swindon – photograph of machinery in Album 78510319-020
BradleyEdwinSupplier/ Contractor1937. Discusses plinths with AK 16 Aug 1939
BradleySupplier/ Contractorarranged mechanical excavator 23 Jun 1937
BrailsfordJW (Mr)VisitorList of experts, 1935
Brander “of Kent”VisitorVisitor, April 1934
BrentnallHC VisitorArchaeologist. Visits 1934 and 19 Dec1939, and with wife in 1935 and July 1937(with wife and then Marlborough College boys. Features in 300 album photograph.
BrightJohnVisitor21 Oct 1935 vicar of Ebbesborne, with (driver?) Mr Oborn 
Brooke-PophamsVisitorVisitor, August 13 1935
BrownBellaVisitorVisitor May 14th – May 15th
BushVisitor17 Jun 1937 Archaeologist from Holland, staying with Piggotts
Bushe-Fox JPVisitorVisitor May 3rd, 6th, Jul 12, 1934, 7 Aug 1935. Chief inspector of Ancient Monuments according to 78510467 1934 Diary, name ‘Bushe-Fox’ correct in WEVY Diary no 9 for same dates.
ButlerGVisitor
ButlerPeterVisitorVisitor, 1935
CameVisitorVisitor 13 June 1938, of the News Chronicle
CampkinPercivalConsulted Expert6 Mar 1937. In party watching Boxing in Devizes. Stayed at Manor to examine teeth and jaws from Lanhill and WKA. From London. (Percival Sidney Campkin 1877-1965)
CarterEHVisitorVisitor, April 1934
CarterVisitorVisited 15 Oct 1938
Caton ThompsonGertrudeVisitorArchaeologist, suffragette, Egyptologist, pioneering scientific approach. Visited 14 Aug 1939 with Mrs Acland Hood
ChallestonVisitorDiary notes he is ‘Press’, visits May 1934
Chapman / Keiller / ChalmersDoris EmersonStaffVisitor April 12th – April 19th. Subsequently transferred to staff. Illustrator (1934-5) and part of excavation team (1937-9)
Chief Split and Mrs Chief Split [?!]VisitorVisitors 2 Aug 1939
ChildeVere GordonVisitorVisitor 15 Aug 1938, 30 Aug 1937 with his sister (WEVY 17)
ChittyMiss Lily Francis “Lal”Consulted ExpertPetrologist — 20000593_059, appears in this series
ChiversSupplier/ ContractorMessrs Chivers of Devizes Supplier of a steam roller for drive through Barn Close
CivilKeiller family/friendJun 17 1934. Friend/contact of WEVY. From Gosport
ClarkGrahameVisitorvisitors 30 Jul 1937. Archaeologist (1907-1995) Sir John Grahame Douglas Clarke, FSA, CBE, FBA. Marlborough Coll, Peterhouse Cambridge
ClarkKennethVisitorvisitor 9 Aug 1937 THE Kenneth Clark of ‘Civilisation’ fame. With Sir Phillip Sassoon, by air
ClementsFConsulted ExpertWEVY diary 16, 10, visited by AK et al 25 Jun 1937. Finder of a pot sherd on Overton Ridge. Grandson of Robert Clements, foreman at Silbury and at WH for Dean Merewether, archaeologist, (1779-1850)
Clifton College Archaeological SocietyVisitorVisitors16 June 1938
CoeVisitor28 Feb-1 Mar 1939. Two night stay. Dinner, then Boxing event Swindon Baths, Site visit 1 Mar. MIAR financial discussions 2 Mar.
CollingwoodVisitorVisitors 23 Aug 1937 Archaeologist (Roman specialist)
Colonel Awdrey / AwdryVisitorVisitor 28 August 1935, frequent correspondent
Congreve MVisitor18 May 1937 Visited WH re-excavation with AK. Stayed at Manor. Visitor 3 Aug 1937
Conway Film Company representativesVisitorVisitors 5 Jul 1939, permission to photograph 6 -16 Jul 1939. 22 Jul
CookDavidVisitorVisitor June 1th – June 17th. ‘To see BL’, staying at Perry’s hotel.
CookNormanStaffArchaeologist, supervisor(?) 1938. Address given 1935 diary as “Maidstone Museum, Kent”
CookVisitorVisitor 20 Aug 1938
CookAvebury local10 Oct 1935 Allotment holder
CookWTBC
CooksonVisitorVisitor 21 July 1938
CostinFredStaffMember of Keiller’s permanent staff
Cotswold Field ClubVisitorVisited 17 Aug 1939 
CrawfordOsbert Guy StanhopeVisitorVisited 11 Jul 1934 WEVY diary 10, 23 Jul 1935 WEVY 12.
Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological SocietyVisitorVisitors 7 Jun 1939, 11am to 5pm. Talks and tours.
CunningtonBenKey character – not Keiller staff etcVisitor 22 Jul,13 Sep 1935
CunningtonMaudKey character – not Keiller staff etcVisitor 22 Jul,13 Sep 1935 WEVY 12, 8 Sep 1937 WEVY 17
CunningtonRobert AnthonyVisitorVisitor, 20 Aug 1937, with father RH Cunnington
CunningtonRobert HenryVisitorWEVY diary 9, Jun 6 1934. Wilts Arch Soc with Cunningtons etc. WEVY diary 17 visitor, 20 Aug 1937 with his son, (Robert A Cunnington), 1 Sep 1937, 8 Sep 1937. Archaeologist. Cousin of Maud Pegge Cunnington and nephew of Ben Cunnington. 
DalglieshWAvebury local10 Feb 1937 winning boxer, Manton Downs Stable lad
DarlingFredAvebury local10 Feb 1937. Racehorse trainer, Beckhampton Stables. Wikipedia
DarlingHVisitorEngineer (constructional). Office of Works, visits 29Jun1934. Wonder if same visitor as Darling (constructional). Also visits 23 Jul 1935 and with wife.
DateMr and DinahVisitorVisit July 1935, Mr Date stayed 28 Sep-2 Oct, 21-24, 29-31 Oct 1938. AK visited him in London several times Sep-Oct 1938
DavidsonJamesVisitorVisitor 29 July 1938
DavidsonMr and MrsVisitorVisitor 20 August 1935
Dayrell ReedTrelawneyVisitorIntermittent correspondent. Artist, author, friend of Augustus John and George Pitt-Rivers, curator of Pitt-Rivers Museum in Farnham Dorest. Visitor May 8 1934 (WEVY 9) with Col Drew and Mr Passmore
de la F[?]MissVisitorVisitor in 1935
DenmanHTVisitorVisitor 23, 31 July, 5 Sep 1935, 25 Aug 1937 (WEVY 17)
DewarWEVY family/friend12 Aug 1937. With nephew and niece. Friends of WEVY
DibbleDLSupplier/ Contractor29 Apr 1937. Painter at Manor, died at Savernake hospital after ulcers operation on 28th Apr.
DittersVisitorVisits in 1935, ‘Ordnance Survey’.
DobsonVisitorVisitor 16 June 1938
DonovanVisitorVisitor 22 Aug 1939 with Father Horne
Drew (and Dorset Field Club)VisitorWith TDR 8 May 1834 (WEVY 9) and Dorset Field Club, 22 Jun 1939, lunched with AK
DruidOther – describe in column N18 Jun 1937. Carthorse owned by AK
DuignanVisitorMet AK at Charles St. 23 May 1939, Prehistoric Society.Visited Avebury 26 May 1939 and stayed overnight
DunbarGeorgeVisitorvisitor 28 Jun to 6 Jul 1937 (WEVY 16) and WH re-excavation 19 May 1937 (WEVY 15) Author of ‘Other Men’s Lives’ a study of primitive peoples (1938)
DuncanKayStaffWindmill Hill supervisor; also appears in letters archive as subject
DunningGCVisitorvisitor 22 Jul 1937 (an archaeologist/med pottery expert). WEVY Diary 19, 18 Jan medieval pottery forwarded for dating. WEVY diary 16, p24 dating medieval pottery
DunningConsulted Expert1937 dating medieval pottery
EarleLionelVisitorVisitor 19 May 1939 from Hilmarton
EarleVisitorVisitors 19 May 1939 from Hilmarton
ElchoVisitorMay 5 1934 (Francis David Charteris 1912-2008) Son of Lady Violet Benson. Visited with Duke of Rutland (her brother, his uncle) and Bensons
EllowayJohn RVisitorJun 17 1934. Friend/contact of WEVY. Co-founder of Basingstoke museum (opened 1931, now rehoused as The Willis Museum) with George Willis. Address 1930: 54 Queens Road, Basingstoke (WEVY diary 1 P20).
Ernest Gordon (Mr and Mrs)VisitorVisitor 28 August 1935
Ethelbert HorneDom VisitorVisitor August 15 1935, 10/11 May 1939
EvansE EstynVisitorVisitor 21 Jul 1939 with Mrs Jones. Stayed in Ebbesbourne about 1927 (WEVY 15, 17 Mar 1937)
Eyres-MonsellJoanVisitorVisitor August 12 1935
FanshaweVisitorQueen’s Boys[?], to apologise for WKA and SE sector damage from troop movements
Fawkes (Fowkes?)RogerVisitor22 April 1939. WEVY friends from 18 years ago.
FensonWVisitorVisitor August 12 1935
Foster ForbesJohnVisitorBroadcast 10 Sep 1937 ‘The Stone Age’
FoxCyrilVisitorWEVY diary 12, 4 & 21 Sep 1935 Archaeologist (1882-1967) Dir, Nat Museum Wales, close friend of Mortimer Wheeler 
FoxHoneyAvebury local
FoyleEnosWEVY family/friend21 Apr 1939. Visit to celebrate WEVY’s parents’ Golden Wedding. Full site visit with AK, DGK and NC
FoyleLilyWEVY family/friend21 Apr 1939. Visit to celebrate WEVY’s parents’ Golden Wedding. Full site visit with AK, DGK and NC
Franks (?)VVisitor
G?Y?Not givenVisitorVisitor July 19th – July 20th and August 25th – August 29th.
Garrons WilliamsSCVisitorVisitor 12 Sep 1939
GeorgeReubenVisitorVisitor, 1935
GilbertCyrilStaffMar 19 1938 “Lad” age 14ish. Working in stores, office & cleaning. 29 Mar, digging flower border in village.
GoddardEHVisitorWEVY diary 9 Visited with Wilts Arch Soc Jun 6 1934, Cunningtons etc
GoddardVisitorUnclear if different to other Goddards? Visitor in 1935, August 10.THIS IS CANON EH GODDARD OF WANHS
GoddardVisitorMrs Goddard visits with friends, 1935, August 10. Link to other Goddards?
GraemeVisitorvisitor 23 Aug 1937
Grant KingDenisStaffSee also ‘Denis Grant Price’, attached to staff 19 Aug 1938?
Grau (spelling?)Not givenVisitorVisitor May 14th – May 15th. Entered as Fraûline G.
GrayFlorenceKey character – not Keiller staff etc
GrayHarold St GeorgeKey character – not Keiller staff etc
GraysonMrsVisitor
GreaderWAvebury local20 May 1937 Landowner selling part of Plough Barrow to AK
GreenwoodVisitorVisited 16 Aug 1939. 9th Lancers, involved in Army exercises, with Lewin [?]
GreigKeiller family/friend5 Apr 1937. AK’s Uncle. Visited WH re-excavation with AK
GreigKeiller family/friend5 Apr 1937. AK’s Aunt. Visited WH re-excavation with AK
GreigKeiller family/friend5 Apr 1937. AK’s cousin? Visited WH re-excavation with AK
GwynneMrsVisitorVisitor August 1934, stayed at Red Lion, stayed Trusloe Manor
HaldenJSupplier/ ContractorFeb 22 1938 arrows and pickets sent for enamelling and repair 73B Victoria St, London SW1, returned Mar 22, more sent Mar29
HaleOther – describe in column N16 Apr 1937.Boxer. Welterweight champ 4th Hussars. 
HartJOther – describe in column N10 Feb 1937 losing boxer, Beckhampton Stable lad
HatherelAvebury local8 Oct 1935 Allotment holder
HawkesChristopherVisitor12 Apr 1937. Archaeologist. Visited WH re-excavation with AK. WEVY 22 p70 24 Apr 1939 overnight stay 
HawkesJacquettaVisitor12 Apr 1937. Archaeologist. Visited WH re-excavation with AK. 24 Apr 1939 overnight stay 
HawleyWilliamVisitorMay 14 1934. (Wm Hawley 1851-1941) Archaeologist, Stonehenge 1890s, Pokesdown 1926
HeasmanVisitorListed on ‘Experts visiting site’, 1934 Office of Works WEVY 9, Jun 3 1934, WEVY 17, 22 Aug 1937
HeathAvebury local1937 local landowner and farmer. Owner of ‘Crawford’s Circle”
Heathicote[?]Visitorvisitor 9 Aug 1937, staying for a week
HebdonStaff6 Mar 1937. In Devizes Boxing trip. WH with AK etc (WEVY 16 p13)
HempWJ and MrsVisitorVisitor, August 13 1935, 23 Aug 1937
HendersonWinifredKeiller family/friendVisitor, 1935. Friend of Keiller, introduced him to Antonia White (Linda Murray, Zest for Life)
Henman [?]Visitorvisitor 21 Aug 1937, stayed for lunch
Hobden / HebdenNot givenVisitorVisitor July 16th – July 17th. Entered as Miss Hobden.
HoggAHAVisitorVisitor 20 August 1935
HollowayTeddyStaff24 Apr 1937 Avebury schoolboy assisting WEVY in MAIR
HolmesMissVisitor
HolmesVisitorHolmeses hoe-ed by DGK 5 May 1939
HorneEthelbertVisitorVisitor 15 Aug 1935, 22 Aug 1939 with Father Donovan, 26 Sep 1935 with Fr Moody. Downside Abbey. Archaeologist and RC Prior Downside Abbey, Somerset
HTD [?]VisitorVisits with friends, 1935. WEVY 17 p28 Mr J Hunt letter 18.1.28 on C16th key.
HuntJohnVisitorVisitor 6 July 1938.
HuntJohnVisitorVisitors 21 Sep and 29 Oct 1938, 18 Nov 1939 
Huth[?]Visitorvisitor 29 Jun 1937
JacksonJ WilfredConsulted ExpertJan 15 1938 animal bones forward to him for exam and report
JacksonJohn WilfredConsulted ExpertOsteoarchaeologist (1880-1978), Manchester based Bones identified as young fox
JamesMarjorieStaffExcavation team 1934-5
JarmanHStaffMar 5 1938 new garage assistant to Phil Withil. WEVY diary 22, p40, p42 Feb 1939. AK’s driver, of the Marshall (car)
JennerLeoVisitor
JenningsVisitorVisited with Mr Date 15 Oct – 17 Oct 1938
JohnsonVisitorVisits with a friend, April 1934
JohnstonIsobelStaffStaff in 1935 – wonder if this is the same person who visits in 1934 (although note differently spelled name). Address in 1935 diary given Balgillo Crescent, Broughty Ferry, Dundee
JonesVisitorVisitor 21 Jul 1939 from Kilmundie[?] with Evans
KeillerAlexanderStaff
KennardASConsulted Expert
KnightThomas
KnightWVisitor1939
LaidlerBarbaraStaffExcavation team 1934-5
LaurenceVisitorvisitor 12 Jul 1937 with his architect
LawesHenryAvebury localField owner (1939) 
LawsonJoseph ‘Joe’Avebury local10 Feb 1937. Racehorse trainer, Manton Downs. Wikipedia
LeaskVisitorvisitor 23 Aug 1937
Lewin [?]VisitorVisited 16 Aug 1939 after ‘Army scandal’ [exercises on WKA] with Greenwood
LiddellDorothyVisitorVisitor April 30th – May 2nd. Windmill Hill supervisor who carried out pioneering work on the decoration of prehistoric pottery. IS THIS SAME AS DML?
LiddellVeronicaStaffWindmill Hill supervisor. Married Keiller
Ligh [?]VisitorVisitors 3 June 1939
LittlecottAvebury localMar 8 1938 previous occupants of (uninhabitable) Old Forge cottage, High St, Avebury, now owned and demolished by AK. Once lodged in by WEVY
LordWilfredVisitorvisitor 12 Jul 1937
LowtherAWGVisitorvisitor 26 Aug, 8 Sep 1937, 13 Jul 1939
MabyConsulted ExpertJan 17 1938 soil and charcoal samples forwarded 
MagorGillian Ione MaudStaff14 Jan 1939. With fiance Thurstan Shaw – WEVY’s friends
MahrVisitorMet AK at Charles St. 17and 23 May 1939, Prehistoric Society Council Meeting
MaidmentEllenVisitorWEVY’a aunt. Visitor, 22 Aug 1937, with daughters Barbara and Connie, WEVY’s cousins
MairVisitorVisit July 1935
MartinEricVisitorVisitor 1934 and 1935
MassinghamMr and Mrs (and hound)VisitorVisitors 25 Jul 1935. Author of ‘Downland Man’ WEVY 12 
MathesonVisitorvisits: 29 June 1937 Mr Matheson of National Trust. With wife 21 Aug 1937
MattisonVisitorvisitor 29 Jun 1937
McPhailVisitorVisitors 14 Aug 1938
Megalith SocietyVisitorNine members visited afternoon of Sunday 13 Nov 1938
MonteithVisitorVisitors 18 June 1938, stayed overnight at Avebury Manor
MontiethCynthiaVisitorVisitor 1-2 Jul 1939, with R Montieth
MontiethRonaldVisitorVisitor 30 Jun – 2 Jul 1939
MoodyVisitor26 Sep 1935 with Very Rev Prior Horne
MooreJSHVisitor
MorrisMayVisitor
MorrisVisitor2 Jun 1937, WH. With WEVY’s friend Canon O’Farrell
Mr and Mrs BennetMr and MrsVisitorVisitor August 15 1935
Mr Keiller’s cousinsVisitorMay 15 1934 CHECK with Keiller diary
NashPaulVisitorVisitor 28 June 1938. Important war artist WW2. Well documented
NeilsonVisitorVisitor 28 June 1938 same day as Paul Nash
NewallRobert SterlingVisitorVisits with Uncle, July 1935. Archaeologist and collector (1884-1974) 
Newbigin / Newbiggin“Nancy”VisitorArchaeologist, particularly noted for worked on rock art and Celtic sites in Ireland. Full name Agnes Jane Waugh Newbigin
Newbury Field ClubVisitorVisitors 20 July 1938
NichollsVisitor1939 – which source?
Nicol / NicholVisitorWEVY Diary Aug 30 1934 page 119
NormanGraceVisitorVisitor in 1935 – 2 July
NormanMiss EVisitorVisitor in 1935 – 4 July Archaeologist, assisted Dorothy Liddell at Hembury Fort (and so knew WEVY)
NorringtonAPVisitorVisitor 1 Jul 1939
O’FarrellVisitorJun 1937, WH. From Aldershot. Friend of WEVY with Fr Morris
O’NeilB.H.StJ.VisitorVisitor September 5th – September 6th, stayed at Perry’s
ObornVisitor2 Oct 1935 some time motor bus driver from Ebbesbourne, with Rev and Mrs Bright. (WEVY 12 20 Nov 1935)
Ormsby GoreVisitorThe ‘First Commissioner of Works’, Office of Works, visits in 1934, 14 Aug 1935
Ottley [?]FHBVisitorVisitor August 12 1935
ParadiseDouglasAvebury localVillager. Blacksmith, owner of “Goatacre” 1 Sep 1938. Paradise’s Cottage demolished in 1938 by MIAR
ParrishColonel and MrsVisitorVisit in 1935
ParsonsLouisConsulted ExpertListed on ‘Experts visiting site’, Visitor June 28th – June 29th, 1934, stayed at Perry’s hotel. Plaster casts of stone fractures to be repaired.
PassmoreVisitorMay 8 1934, with Col Drew and TDR 
Peak-Garland?Avebury localManor Farm, landowner
Peak-GarlandAvebury local
PeakeHaroldVisitorVisits with two friends, April 1934. Well known – has ADS record?
PerryCDAvebury localFeb 15 1938 Owner, Avebury Private Hotel (“Perry’s”)
PerryAvebury localJun 17 1934. Proprietor of Perry’s Private Hotel, Avebury
PetoVisitorVisited and lunched with AK 17 Aug 1939. 9th Lancers, with Thornton re army scandal
PhilipsCWVisitorVisitor 5 Sep1935, 31 Oct 1939, stayed with Piggots 22 Jun 1937 (WEVY 16 p21) 
PiggottPeggyVisitorVisitor 25 June to 5 Jul 1937
PiggottStuartStaffArchaeologist
Plante/PlantGVisitorExpert plasterer employed by Messrs Turner, Lord and Co., London.Discussion to take plaster casts 21 Sep 1937. Plastering 28 Sep 1937 and casts September 1938, 22 Jul1939
PriceVisitorVisits May 1934
PricterAvebury local12,14 Oct 1935 Allotment holder
PritchardVisitorVisitors 3 June 1939
PughVisitorJun 6 1934. Wilts Arch Soc with Cunningtons etc
PugsleyJosephSupplier/ ContractorHeavy machinery hire – photograph 78510319-019
RabyFJEVisitorOffice of Works. Visitor 26 Aug 1935, 16 Aug 1937 – stayed at Manor (WEVY 17). Frequent correspondent of AK.
RadcliffeRAvebury localTenant. Inside repairs to her cottage on Swindon Road 30 Nov 1939 by GB
RadfordRalegh CAVisitor22 Aug 1935 Archaeologist (1900-1998)FSA with van Giffen
RaffertyVisitorMet AK at Charles St. 23 May 1939, Prehistoric Society. Visited Avebury 26 May 1939 and stayed overnight
RawlinsFrankAvebury localVillager- Garage owner. Drove WEVY to Guildford (WEVY 15, 22 Feb 1937) Worked in Manor garage till 26 Feb 1937 
ReedOther – describe in column NMar 12 1938 AK presented bravery award to 13 year old Reed at Netheravon boys boxing contests
Reginald WilliamsonMrsVisitorVisit July 1935
RickardsMargeryStaffWEVY diary 16 one of two garage assistants MIAR, wages clerk from 26 June 1937
RobertsVisitorvisitor 14 Jul 1937
RumboldAnthonyVisitorVisitor, August 13 1935
RutlandVisitorMay 5 1934 (JHM Manners 1888-1940) Brother of Lady Violet Benson. Visited with Lord Elcho (his nephew) and Bensons. 
S [?]RobertVisitorVisitors 10 Sep 1938
SassoonPhilipVisitorvisitor 9 Aug 1937 with Kenneth Clark, arrived by air. First Commissioner of Works in 1937. Under Secretary of State for Air, managing RAF
SewellVisitor4 May 1937. Visited WH re-excavation. Friend of DC???
ShawCharles ThurstanConsulted ExpertVisitor 30 April 1934, (WEVY 9), August 19 1935 to 23 Aug 1935 excavating (WEVY 12). Visited: NW Sector 12 Jul 1937(WEVY 16), SW sector with WEVY (diary 22) 14 Jan 1939 with fiancee Ione Magor.
Simking [?]LanceVisitorVisitor 18 Sep 1939
SimpsonFJOther – describe in column N16 Apr 1937. Boxer. Amateur lightweight champion GB 1936
SirlVisitorWEVY diary 10, Jul 19 1934. Of Ebbesbourne Wake, lodger at WEVY’s parental home (WEVY diary 13 p16), visited with Mr Street,
SmithAlanVisitorVisited site with Date and Miss Jennings 16 Oct, and 17 Oct , 22-24,29 Oct 1938. Stayed overnight 7 Jun 1939
SmithIsobelKey character – not Keiller staff etcPioneering prehistorian. Excavated at Avebury and published a synthesis of the Keiller excavations in 1965
SmithJanetVisitorVisitor May 14th – May 15th
SmithKCVisitorList of visitors to Avebury, April 1934, staying at Perry’s Hotel
SmithNot given – separate to JanetVisitorVisitor May 14th – May 15th. Entered as ‘Miss Smith’, separate to Janet Smith.
SmithVisitorVisitor to Manor 28 Aug 1938
SmithVisitorAug 4 1935. Family friends of WEVY
SoulMr Soul (of Amesbury)VisitorVisitor 20 August 1935
SpainPVisitorJul 7 1935. Sidney Sussex College, Camb pal with Thurstan Shaw
SpenceHegmatKeiller family/friend1939 diary. Ski-ing friend of AK since 1920s, mentioned alongside Guy Nixon, Chris Mackintosh and Colin Wyatt
StephensonVisitorVisitor 20 Oct 1937 with Col Awdry
StoneJFSVisitorArchaeologist. Corresponded with Young, see folder, 20000593 WEVY diary 9. Visitor Jun 6 1934 with Wilts Arch Soc and Cunningtons. see Wikipedia
StrappsAnnie AlbertinaWEVY family/friendWEVY’s aunt. Visitor 19 Aug 1937. With WEVY’s parents. Chauffeur driven by Vickers, at AK’s invitation
StreetVisitorJul 19 1934. Of Ebbesbourne Wake WEVY’s friend, with Miss Sirl
SturdeyBernardStaffStaff 1934, visits 23 Jul 1935
SymingtonJVisitorVisitor with Date and A Smith 22-24, 29 Oct 1938. Scottish Geologist?
TVisitorVisitor 25 June 1937
TaylorAvebury localHosted listening of recording of J Foster-Forbes’s broadcast 17/22 Sep 1937
Taylor / TaylourSorelStaff10 Sep 1939 Section-Leader ATS [Auxilliary Territorial Service] (1939 diary)
TeischlerHansVisitorvisitor 30 Jul 1937. 
ThorneycroftMr and MrsVisitorVisit 9 July 1935
ThorntonVisitorVisited and lunched with AK 17 Aug 1939 with Peto re army scandal
Thurloe LeedsEVisitorVisitor August 15 1935
TibbleAvebury localJun 18 1934. Nursed R Gale (Hand) who died that morning
TitcombeGeorgeAvebury localAppears WEVY diary 10. Also WEVY diary 12, 24 Oct 1935, measuring for a fence up to the Toll House
Tom of the Grab’Tom DAMON? Supplier/ ContractorGrab operative 26 Sep 1938. WEVY 20 see queries.
Van Asch [?]VisitorFrom New Zealand (WEVY 16 p 20)Blasting tree stumps July 1937, finished 19 July. Visited 13 Oct 1939 with wife
van GiffenAlbert EggesVisitor22 Aug 1935 Dutch Archaeologist (1884-1973) with Radford
VatcherFaith Other – describe in column NCurator of the Alexander Keiller Museum. Excavated Avebury in 1969 and 1976
VatcherLanceOther – describe in column N
VawlettVisitor
VickersWAvebury local1 Mar 1937. A Mechanic? Replaced F Rawlins in Manor garage.
VickersWalterStaffWEVY 16, 3 Aug 1937 assistant chauffeur at Manor. WEVY 19, Mar 5 1938 now ‘ex’ garage assistant to Phil Withil
VigorVisitorMr (Captain) and Mrs Vigor visit twice April 1934, Mrs Vigor and Miss Vigor also visit. Visit again in 1935. East Kennett Manor
Violet PakenhamVisitorSpelling uncertain. Visitor, August 13 1935
ViveashRoseVisitorMiss Vyvash in diary. Visitor, 1934
W G S VisitorWiltshire Geological Society visit (220 members)
Wagstaffe (perhaps a misspelling? Think this is Barbara WagstaffVisitorAppears as visitor in 1935 – visits on same date as Miss Piggott. Note that Wagstaff later takes photographs at Sutton Hoo (1939), at which the Piggots excavate. Very significant if she also is at Avebury.
WallisVisitorvisitor 20 Aug 1937
WallisVisitorJun 29 1934, landowner, of Cherhill, colleague of Mr Wright, WEVY’s friend
WaltersVisitorA descendent of Dr William Stukeley, visits 28 August 1935
WatsonWSVisitorvisitor 3 Jul 1937, staying at the Manor [Avebury]
WheelerMortimerConsulted Expert
WhiteFAvebury localTenant. Inside repairs to her cottage on Swindon Road 30 Nov 1939 by GB
WildeJimmyOther – describe in column NReferee, 9 Feb 1937. Famous and controversial Welsh boxer (active 1911-23) Wikipedia. Local training stables competition boxing referee with AK in Marlborough.
WilderPhyllisStaff
WilliamsLetticeVisitorVisitor 4 Aug 1938
WilliamsPVisitorVisitor 4 Aug 1938
WilliamsOther – describe in column NAppears in undated photographs from Denis Grant King
Williams-FreemanVisitorJun 6 1934. Wilts Arch Soc with Cunningtons etc, 20 Oct 1937
WillisGeorge WVisitorJun 17 1934. Friend/contact of WEVY. Co-founder of original Basingstoke museum (opened 1931, now rehoused as The Willis Museum) with John R Elloway. Clockmaker and jeweller at 2 Wote Street, Basingstoke. (WEVY 1, P19). Mayor of Basingstoke 1923-4
WilsonVisitorVisitor and ‘Medicine Office of Health’, 1934
WithilPhilStaffMember of Keiller’s permanent staff. Chauffeur. PHOTO WEVY 19 p44
WoolleyLeonardVisitorvisitor 22 Aug 1937, 14Aug1938 Famous archaeologist, Ur, Mesopotam
WoolleyVisitorvisitor 22 Aug 1937 with husband, above
WrightVisitorJun 29 1934 School Inspector, friend of WEVY. With Mr Wallis
YoungAmyVisitorWEVY’s sister-in-law. 19 Sep 1937 with husband Bert and WEVY’s mother
YoungBertramVisitorWEVY’s brother. 19 Sep 1937 with wife Amy and WEVY”s mother
YoungEdward TomWEVY family/friend21 Apr 1939. Visit to celebrate WEVY’s parents’ Golden Wedding. Full site visit with AK, DGK and NC. WEVY 17 day visit 19 Aug 1937, chauffeur driven by Vickers, at AK’s invitation
YoungFannyWEVY family/friend21 Apr 1939. Visit to celebrate WEVY’s parents’ Golden Wedding. Full site visit with AK, DGK and NC. WEVY 17 day visit 19 Aug 1937, chauffeur driven by Vickers, at AK’s invitation. Visit 19 Sep 1937 with Bert and Amy.
YoungWilliamStaffSite Foreman. Many sources!
Zennor / ZennerFConsulted ExpertJan 17 1938 soil and charcoal samples forwarded 
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Digitisation in progress: photography

Header image: Denis Grant King’s diary, Accession Number 1732623-002.

In the ‘archive scoping’ blog post I talked about our ambitions for the archive, and how we hope to embed reminders that, behind the digital files we create, there are real objects.

We’ve now been photographing for 4 months, and making good progress. Our wonderful volunteers have been tackling flat papers, photographic prints, and books which require ‘v-scanning’ (the books rest partially open in a cradle, and we use a setting in Tocosa to ‘flatten’ or ‘open up’ the pages). Each different kind of item demands a slightly different approach, whether that’s selecting lighting settings, using a cradle for conservation purposes, and whether we make use of auto crop or rotate, or do one or both adjustments manually.

Below are some of the photographs taken so far, which show a few of the strategies and decisions we’ve made.

Denis Grant King – Journal of my visit to Avebury, 1983

Denis Grant King’s diary, Accession Number 1732623-002.

King was an archaeologist and artist, and he spent many years at Avebury, eventually working with Isabel Smith as she prepared her vitally important synthesis of the 1930s excavations (which she published in 1965 as Windmill Hill and Avebury. Excavations by Alexander Keiller, 1925–1939).

King’s diaries are lavishly illustrated and contain reflections on the personal dynamics of the group as much as the archaeology.

For this diary, we used the v-scan function in Tocosa, as it ‘flattens’ out the ‘v’ shape of the diary. We haven’t done this for all manuscripts, but there were compelling reasons for this one: 1. the double-page spread illustrations, and illustrations throughout, look better with square(ish) edges; 2. The handwriting is clear enough for us to use OCR (Optical Character Recognition) software to semi-automate the transcription process, and straighter lines of text help the OCR along. But more on OCR another time!

This map page is so beautiful I couldn’t resist uploading a version already to King’s existing Wikipedia page. We’ll be doing some more uploading to Wikipedia later in the project, as it’s a great way to get Avebury materials out there in front of many eyes!

Alexander Keiller’s 1934 excavation diary

Keiller kept diaries for each of his excavations. This is the first one for our project: covering the 1934 activity at West Kennet Avenue.

We photograph the fronts of all book-type objects in order to give more of an impression of the physical object.

Keiller’s 1934 diary, accession number 78510467 – front cover.

And here’s a preview of the title page, which gives a hint at Keiller’s handwriting (which is presenting a challenge to our transcription volunteers – more on that in another post!).

Unlike Denis Grant King’s Diary, for these diaries we are not using v-scan correction, so you get those angles edges from where the book is resting in the cradle. It was not so important to have square edges for these diaries, as there are no illustrations and the handwriting is almost impossible for OCR. Keeping these sloping edges keeps that reminder of the physical object properties.

Keiller’s 1934 diary, accession number 78510467 – inside cover page.

Retaining imperfection

Accession number 20004005-002.

Sometimes, letters might be a little creased as we find them in their storage boxes. So long as the crease doesn’t obscure the text, we are not smoothing out all texture. Again, this is to preserve more of an impression of the ‘real’ archive – which I hope will perhaps encourage people to come and see it for themselves. It also, I think, gives more of a sense of these objects as things which have been used – they’re not just digital files that have appeared on the internet, they have their own histories.

This letter is a reply from the museum curator regarding a query about the ‘Mary Tudor’ weight found at Avebury.

When photography goes wrong

And finally… just an example of the kind of human error that can sneak into the photography studio! Below you see the first image which was taken of item 88051525-064. Notice the ghostly hand blurring across the image! Luckily, we noticed this error and the photograph has now been re-taken, hands free.

Photograph of the address side of a postcard. There are two green King Edward stamps in the top right corner. This photo also has an error! There is a blur of an arm across the image.
Ooops… Item 88051525-064 is photographed a little too quickly.
Photograph of the address side of a postcard. There are two green King Edward stamps in the top right corner.
All fixed! 88051525-064 is ready for the archive.

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Video: March updates from the paper archive

We are two short months into the digitisation here at Avebury! Below you can watch a very short video going over what we’ve been up to with the volunteer team in the paper archive so far. This video was originally made for the local National Trust spring update.

Please leave your questions or comments – we’d love to know what you think.